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DISTRICT MUZAFFARNAGAR GAZEETEER CHAPTER II.*** AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE

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CHAPTER   II.   *** AGRICULTURE &   COMMERCE.

CULTIVATION

DEVELOPMENT                   

CULTIVATED AREA

BARREN AREA

CULTURABLE AREA

AGRICULTURE

SOILS

IMPLEMENTS

SUGAR MILLS

HARVEST WHEAT SUGARCANE

JUAR

MAIZE

COTTON

INDIGO

RICE

VALUE OF CROPS

SOWINGS

IRRIGATION

GANGES CANAL

ANUPSHAHR CANAL

DISTRIBUTERIES

RESULTS OF CANAL EXTENSION

DRAINS

DEOBAND CANAL

THE EASTERN JAMUNA CANAL

TRADE

MARKETS

MANUFACTURES

GRAIN EXPORT

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

WAGES

DUES

INTEREST

RAILWAYS

METALLED ROADS

THE UNMETALLED ROADS, Second CLASS

 

FIFTH CLASS ROAD

THE SIXTH CLASS ROADS

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CULTIVATION

cultivation in this district, which resembles all the dis­tricts of the Duab is being purely agricultural in character, has reached a very high level and, as elsewhere, may be said to have approached within measurable distance of finality. If the area of waste and culturable land is large in comparison with the neighbouring districts, and especially those lying to the south of Muzaffarnagar, it is not because there are any extensive tracts of good land waiting to be broken up, but its presence is rather due to the configuration of the country, such land consisting for the most part of the wide stretches of pre­carious soil in the neighbourhood of the great rivers, or of the dhak jungles of Jhinjhana, or the saturated land in the north­west of the district, which is constantly endangered by the obstruction of the natural drainage lines caused by the Eastern Jamuna canal and its branches. Moreover, we find, classed as culturable, an extensive area of poor sandy soil in the Muzaffar­nagar and Jansath tahsils, much of which could no doubt be brought under the plough, but which could never repay culti­vation continuously and in the face of the many possible variations of climatic conditions.

Nonetheless, cultivation, so far as we can judge from mere figures, has steadily been on the increase for many years. The development of the canal system, which has rendered secure not only the eastern half of the district, but which in more recent times has averted the constant shadow of famine from the lands between the Kali and the Hindan through the agency of the Deoband canal, has not been the only factor in bringing about a fuller development of the natural resources of the district. The general prosperity of the people, together with   the increase   in   their   numbers, has  urged   them  to fresh efforts   so   that within   the last   few    years   a   striking   advance  is  observable,    in   spite of,   and    perhaps   because  of, a  largely-increased    revenue   demand.    The     numerous   drainage    works undertaken by   the   Canal  Department   have    reclaimed a  large amount of land, and have   replaced a saturated   reh-infected soil by a good   firm   loam   that can   continuously   bear  good   crops, while elsewhere the people have   acted  on   their own   initiative, as for instance in the Thana   Bhawan   pargana,  where   the  last thirty years   have    seen   a   spread   of cultivation   amounting   to nearly   10,000 acres,  most    of which was   covered at the earlier period with a   thick   growth   of  useless dhak jungle.  Nor   can this be merely ascribed    to an extension of the   margin of culti­vation arising from sheer necessity, for  fully  one-half of the whole pargana is irrigated,   while   even more is doubtless  within reach of irrigation if necessity arose.

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DEVELOPMENT

Looking at the history  of  cultivation  in this district during the past half century, we find that   in    1848   the cultivated  area amounted to 628,863 acres,   or  over   59    per cent, of  the whole area. Of the remainder, 219,019 acres, or over 20 per cent., were culturable, 15 per cent, barren  waste  and 4.5 percent, revenue-free.    In 1853 the cultivated area   had   increased very greatly, to the extent of 41,605   acres, or 6.6 per cent, on the previous cultivation and 4 per cent, on the  total area.  At the same time the revenue-free   land had increased  to   over   7 per cent.     This spread of cultivation was mainly due to the breaking up of new land and   the  stimulus  given  to agriculture  by  the  construc­tion of the Ganges canal. At    Mr.  Martin's  settlement of 1862, however, there was a striking decrease, the cultivated area falling to somewhat over 60 percent.The barren waste remained prac­tically the  same, while the revenue-free   area was  reduced  by resumptions to only three per cent.. This falling off was chiefly due to the disturbances caused by the  mutiny, while at the same time a large amount of land   was thrown out of cultivation during the famine year of 1860, and   a considerable area of good land had been taken up for  roads  and  canals. It is also to be noted that the figures for the culturable area  in 1853 were so low as to lead one to suppose that land fit for, but not actually under, the plough was included in the cultivated area for that year.

 In 1872 the returns show a slight increase  in  the  cultivated area, amounting to about 4,000 acres,   the  whole   covering   over 65 per cent, of the total area.  At the  same time the culturable area  had increased   to about the same   extent, while the  amount of barren waste was much smaller  than that previously recorded. At the time of Mr. Miller's settlement in   1891    the total cultiva­ted area amounted to 683,783 acres, or 64.4 per cent, of the total area of the  district.  Of the remainder,  nearly   18 per cent, was classed as culturable, 15 per cent, as barren  waste and  less than three per cent,  as  revenue-free.  This  proportion  varied   consi­derably in different parts of the district.  In   the Jansath tahsil cultivation  covered  74  per  cent, of   the    total   area,  and  in Budhna and Muzaffarnagar it  was as much as 76 per cent.   On the other hand, in Kairana   only 54  per cent,   of the whole area was  cultivated.  There  had  been   no  considerable    increase  in the eastern parts of the  district,  of  which  Mr.  Cadell  revised the assessment,  but  on  the contrary  a   considerable   decrease, which   was more  marked   in  the Muzaffarnagar pargana,  and was chiefly attributable to the varying nature of the  cultivation in the sandy  tracts,    where the  crops are   entirely   dependent on the season, and partly to a real diminution  of the culturable area in a few waterlogged villages.  In the   rest of the    district, however,  there had been  a   great  extension : the increase  in Budhana tahsil amounted  to  over  5,400 acres, in   Baghra  and Charthawal to 4,300  acres, and in Kairana  tahsil to over 7,000 acres. This increase was  chiefly  due to  the depressed  state of tile   district at the time of Mr. Martin's settlement. Thus the spread of cultivation meant nothing more  than the  recovery of villages that had lost ground in the mutiny and the famine.

At the last settlement Mr. Miller considered that it was not probable that there would be any great addition to the cultivated area in the future. In a few cases the inferior lands had been thrown out of cultivation on account of the approaching settlement, but the Kairana tahsil alone possessed any large area of culturable waste. He further expressed the opinion that any great extension was not to be desired, as the amount of fallow was already very small and thy area required for grazing purposes was reduced to its smallest limit. This is especially the case in the eastern half of the district. The opening of the Deaoband canal brought about a great increase in cultivation in those parganas through which it runs. In the tract between the Kali and the Hindan rivers the spread of cultivation during the twenty years preceding 1900 was over 21,000 acres, while the irrigated area had more than doubled. The increase had been greatest in the parganas of Shikarpur and Charthawal.

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CULTIVATED AREA

The opinion of the Settlement Officer has   been borne   out   by the figures of subsequent years.  In   the years   that  have elapsed since the settlement  of the cultivated area has varied in extent con­siderably. The average for the past five years has   been 63.2 per cent, of the total area, which is actually   less than   the figures    at the time of the settlement. But at   the same  time  this  average does not give a reliable  idea  of the  state of  cultivation in   the district on account of the two dry years of 1897 and 1898 ; in the former the cultivation fell to 61 per cent, of  the    total area, and in the latter there was a still   further  decline,   only 59 per   cent, being cultivated.  In  1899 the figures   rose to 65 per   cent., and the normal cultivation at the present time appears to be about 66 per cent.  The figures of the year 1309 fasli will be found in the appendix.

Of the remaining area, 47,328  acres,   or   nearly   5   per   cent, of the whole, are held  revenue-free, either in separate estates or as portions of revenue-paying   estates, and somewhat under 7,000 acres belong to estates of    which the   revenue   is   assigned.   The revenue-free area had diminished by nearly 2,000 acres on account of   resumptions   which  had   occurred   since  Mr.   Cadell's   settlement.     Revenue-free grants   are most numerous   in the parganas of Khatauli and Muzaffarnagar,  where   many have been   made in favour of the Marhal   family of Karnal, who are also  assignees of the revenue of several    estates.     During   the   Muhammudan  rule grants of land to Sheikhs were   common, and several communities have been successful in maintaining their title under British rule. In Thana Bhawan the Pathans of Jalalabad   and  Lohari   hold  an extensive property free of revenue, but   most of  the    estates that were once revenue-free   in   this  neighborhood were  confiscated for rebellion in the mutiny. The tenure of these grants in this district is usually unconditional and in perpetuity ; one estate in Khatauli and one in Thana Bhawan are held for life only, while one in Budhdna is assigned for the benefit of a Musalman shrine and its attendants.

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BARREN AREA

The unculturable area includes all the land occupied by villages, hamlets, railways, roads and canals, as well as land actually under water and land that is naturally incapable of cultivation. At the time of settlement this amounted to 14 per cent, of the total area, and since that date the figures have remained practically the same. Much of the land that is now classed as unculturable could, no doubt, be rendered fit for cultivation by clearing or draining or by protection against floods by means of embankments. The adoption of such measures on a large scale is, as the Settlement Officer pointed out, beyond the means and energies of the people; and consequently land that could only be prepared for cultivation by an excessive expenditure must be treated for all practical purposes as unculturable. In some ins­tances, however, the increase of the population or the pressure of the revenue demand drives the villagers to break up land that has always been regarded as unculturahle, and it is not uncommon to find such efforts crowned with considerable success.

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CULTURABLE AREA

The culturable waste at the present time varies from 20 to 26 per cent, of the total area, judging from the figures of the past five years. At the time of settlement it was noted that the amount of land so classified varied greatly in different parts of the district. In the Jansath tahsil only 7 per cent, of the total area was returned as culturable, while in Budhana there was as much as 22 per cent. In the prosperous parts of the. district the area of culturable land is now small and cannot be reduced much further. In the western parganas the case is different : nearly 30 percent, of Kairana is still capable of cultivation, and about 40 percent of Bidauli might be brought under the plough. It is in this part of the district that there is most room for development and improvement; and it is in this part that there has actually been least during the last few years and at the present time least is to be expected.

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AGRICULTURE

The method of agriculture in   this   district   resembles that of all the other   districts   of  the   Duab.     The   Jats,   who    are   best cultivators, set the fashion, and their system is generally followed by other castes.     The   main   feature    is   the   extension   of high cultivation to all the good land of an   estate   instead  of   restricting the highly farmed area  to the  land  surrounding    the   home­stead.      This is chiefly due to   the   importance    of  the sugarcane crop.    All the good land of the village that is   within easy reach of irrigation is used in rotation   for cane, and, as the cane fields are always well manured, it   follows    that  all the  fields with a naturally good soil get their share of manure in turn. The Jats everywhere   despite garden   cultivation    and  in  some  instances they actually object to working in the fields close to the village.

This state of things naturally had an effect on   the soil classi­fication employed at the last and at preceding settlements.    It is not possible in this district to follow the   usual    classification of fields dependent   on    their distance from the   hamlet.     The most valuable land is that which has a naturally good soil   and is well situated for irrigation, whether   it is near the hamlet or on the village boundary.    Proximity to the houses is of course an advantage, but this is   of little importance   when   compared with others  that affect the  rent.     In many villages the best cul­tivation is scattered about in the neighborhood of the different wells, and consequently we find  in   many places small   hamlets springing up wherever there is a  well.     In most cases these are only occupied while the crop is  on the  ground, and   the cultiva­tors do not take their families    with them,   but occasionally such little settlements become permanent.    An exception to this rule is frequently   found   in   the    western  and more   backward   parts of the district, for there land is plentiful  and  cultivators    few, so  that  the outlying  fields   are    naturally  of  less   value  than those close to the village.

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SOILS

The cultivators of the district do not employ amongst themselves any ordinary classification of soils, although of course there are common names for different kinds of soils. Good ordinary loam land known as Rausli;  stiff clay soil such as is often found in the rice tracts, is called Dakar, while the low lying parts of an estate are sometimes talked off as the Dahar. Besides these, there is a  hard   and  stiff  soil   which   has   at one time been the bed of a jhil : it is known   as   dabar    or   jot,   and is often unculturable.    Bhur or Bhudda, is    the   usual    name for all light dry soils, and is   frequently    applied   in   a    deprecatory manner to any un irrigated tract,   although   for   the   purpose   of settlement it is  restricted to soil that is actually    sandv.     Some times also  the name bhur   is   used   to   distinguish the high lying parts of an estate from the dahar.  High ridges of sand are locally called ghur, while there are other  local   terms   in   common   use for  various   descriptions    of   soil,   such as   the  choil or swampy-ground of the Gordhanpur pargana.    For the purposes of   settle­ment the whole cultivated area was originally divided    into   four classes, known as misan or manured land.rausli, dakar and bhur. Mr. Cadell went further, and divided rausli into two classes, and also marked   off  in  a   few    villages   small   patches  of  Bara   or garden land, also making   a   distinction   between   wet   and  dry ground.    Mr. Cadell revision was confined to   the eastern parganas of the district, and his   classification   was    not   altered   by Mr. Miller, with the exception that   miswan   was    abandoned   for the reasons given above : all old miswan land   was   demarcated as rausli.    At the last settlement, however, the old  classification was still in force in the western parganas.    It    was   not accurate and was never treated with much respect   even by   the assessing officers themselves.    Consequently,   it    was  found   necessary    to make a new classification in the western   half  of   the district on the lines laid down by Mr. Cadell.    It  was   only   made  roughly and was never   intended   as  anything except   a   guide   for   the Settlement Officer at the time.

Of the total area of the district only 1,091 acres were separ­ately demarcated by Mr. Miller as bara or garden land, for the distinction was only made where such land fetched a distinctly higher rent than the rest of the village. By far the greater part of the cultivated area was assessed as first class soil, the total area so demarcated amounting to over 63 per cent., of the whole assessed area. Of the remainder, over 22 per cent, was classed ad second class raulsi and 13 per cent, as bhur. The latter is very unevenly distributed. In the upland portion of the Jansath tahsil and in the parganas of Muzaffarnagar and Pur Chapar it covers more than a quarter of the cultivated area, but in Budhana it only amounted to about 3 per cent, of the whole and in Kairana to scarcely 2 per cent. Looking at the whole district, we find that the best pargana is Kandhla. It contains a greater proportion of first class soil than any other, while next in point of order comes Shamli, Baghra and Shikarpur. The excellence or other wise of parganas does not, however, depend merely on the soil classification, as many other considerations have to be taken into account.

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IMPLEMENTS

In dealing with the general system of agriculture of this district, it may be of some interest to give a short account of the various agricultural implements in common use and their no­menclature. The plough goes by the name of Hal, and the yoke in this district, is known as jua. The beam of the plough is called the halas and is fixed to the body of the plough by a wooden peg known as the wag or pachhar. The halas is attached to the yoke by means of naris or leathern thongs passing through three holes known as karhe. If a man wishes lo plough deep he harnesses the yoke higher up the halas; this deep ploughing is called lagu. When light ploughing or askulsiya is necessary, the yoke is fastened lower down the hals nearer the share. The latter is known as the phal and is fixed to the hal by a kharwa or peg. The handle of the plough is known as the tindi or hatheli.

The other important agricultural implements comprise the lakar, a large wooden roller weighing from six to eight maunds. It is attached to the yoke by traces known as guriya. This roller is also known as the dhelaphor and corresponds to the pataila of Rohilkhand: it is used for crushing the clods of clay soil there are two kinds of harrows, one known as the dahan and the other as the maira. The former has teeth, kown as khunti, and is used for eradicating grass from ploughed land and also to mix up the earth and water in a field tilled for rice. The maira has no teeth and is merely used in light land to leve the surface just as the lakar is employed in heavier   soil.

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SUGAR MILLS

The old wooden sugar-mill   has   now   completely disappeared from the district, and has since    1890   been   supplanted    by   the improved iron mills local known as charkhis. They originally introduced by the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, and at their first appearance were considered luxuries. Each of them at first fetched from Rs.60  to Rs. 70 per year. The price has lowered considerably since that date, and at the present time the small sugar-press with two rollers fetches at an average Rs. 12-9.8 per year. These were comparatively scarce in this district in 1901, the total number in use being 236. The second kind with two large rollers and a small roller in front is much more common; in the same year there were 1,687 in use. the average rate of hire being Rs. 20-3-6. The large sugar-press with three rollers is still more frequently met with in this district; there were 1,809 such machines, going by the general name of kolhu, and hired at an average rate of Rs. 33-4-10. Most of these mills are the property of the Sirmur State, and there are depots in various places from which the machines are hired. The hire of a karahi or iron boiler is Rs. 10 per season.

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HARVEST

Judging from the averages of the five years preceding the last settlement, it appears that the areas occupied by the kharif and rabi harvests are approximately equal. Temporary vari­ations, no doubt, occur from time to time on account of the season, but, generally speaking, the predominance, if any. is on the side of the rabi harvest. The double-cropped area for the same period amounted to about 14 per cent The latter varies con­siderably according to the locality. In the Ganges khudir, and especially in that pare of it which lies in Bhuma Sambalhera, the dofasli area amounts to 30 per cent. In pargana Kandhla it is nearly 23 per cent., and 16.6 per cent, for the whole Budhana tahsil, which is exactly the same as in Kairana. On the other hand, the double-cropped area in the upland portion of the Jansath tahsil is only 10.1 per cent, and 11 per cent, in Muzaffarnagar; the lowness of the figures in this part of the dis­trict being due to the prevalence of sand, for double-cropping is only practised generally where there are abundant facilities for irrigation. In 1901 the double-cropped area had increased to 16.5 per cent, of the total cultivation.

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WHEAT

Taking the principal crops in order, we find that wheat largley predominates. occupying over 3.3 per cent of the whole  cultivated area. The average is lowest in the Jansath tahsil, where it amounts to 26.4 per cent., and highest in Kairana, where it covers 38.7 per cent, of the   cultivation.  In    pargana Bidauli wheat occupies no less than 44 per cent, of the whole sown  area. The cultivation of wheat has   not   varied   to   any   great   extent. durig the past thirty years.   It has only increased in the parganas of Khatauli, Bhuma Sambhalhera,   Budhana    and  Shikarpur.     On the  other  hand   there   has   been    a   small   decrease in Kandhla, Charthawal, Thana Bhawan, .Jhinjhana and most of    the   western parganas.     The great bulk of the wheat crop    is sown alone.    It is only mixed with    barley   and   other   crops   to    a   considerable extent   in   Bhuma   Sambalhcra,    Pur Chapar   and   Bhukarheri, owing, no doubt, to the large areas of light and sandy soil in these parganas, for wherever possible wheat is  preferably   sown  alone on account of its higher market value and in order to supply the export trade.

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SUGARCANE

Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in this   district, and for many   years   has    been   constantly   on    the increase.    At Mr. Thornton's settlement of 1841 sugarcane covered 4.75 of the total cultivated area.    In 1860 the average area under sugarcane for the whole district had   risen   to   6.2,   while   at   Mr.    Miller's settlement 8-3 per cent, of the  cultivation   was   under    this crop. Since the settlement the cultivation of sugarcane has   been even further extended, and in every part of the district, but especially that through which the   railway   runs,   one is   constantly   struck with the sight of large   fields of  sugarcane   in   every   direction, In I860 sugarcane was chiefly grown   in   the    parganas   of   Khatauli, Shamli, Pur   Chapar.   Gordhanpur   and  Shikarpur, while in the Kairana tahsil cane cultivation was considerably below the average, as also in the Charthawal and Baghra parganas, the tract that is now   watered   by   the   Deoband   canal.     During the past thirty years the increase   has    been   greatest   in    Bhukarheri and the eastern part of   the district generally.     There   is  still   comparatively little cultivation of cane in    the  Kairana   tahsil.     At the last settlement   the  Jansath   tahsil   took   the   lead   in   this respect, the average for the    whole tract   being    15.4 per cent, of the cultivation: in Kairana   only   5.6   per cent, of the land was under sugarcane    while  in   the    Muzaffarnagar   and    Budhana tahsil the figures closely corresponded with the general average of the district. A large amount, of sugarcane is grown in the Ganges khadir, especially towards the south, but most of it. is of rather an inferior description.

In the eastern half of the district sugarcane is so far regarded as the principal crop that all the agricultural operations are to a large extent regulated by the arrangement required for its cultivation. To quote from Mr. Miller's report: "It is regard­ed as being above all others the rent-paying crop, and, where the tenant has a fixed rent and is not liable to a high crop-rate, he puts under cane as much land as the available supply of manure and a due regard for the rotation of crops allow. In the western parganas cane is not grown to quite the same extent, partly because, though a very large proportion of the land is irrigable, the supply of water is not plentiful, and partly, it is said, because soils with a mixture of sand are best adapted for cane cultivation. In former times sugarcane was grown after a year's fallow, and the rent paid for it was for two years' occupa­tion of the land. In well-irrigated tracts the old practice, still obtains, but where canal irrigation is easy the land is given as little rest as possible. I have seen one cane, crop being planted immediately after another had been cut, and, though no good cultivator would exhaust the soil in this way, it is certain that a complete year's fallow is seldom given."

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JUAR

Of the regular kharif crops juar is the most important covering at the time of settlement 13.8 per cent, of the total cultivation. In this district, however, it is not usually grown as a food-grain. The greater part of it is planted thick, and is used as fodder under the name of 'chari.' As little land is now available for grazing, the fodder crop is a very valuable one and its occasional failure in years of heavy rainfall causes much dis­tress. In1860 juar covered 14 per cent, of the total cultivated area, and this is about the same proportion as that, in which it now stands. It is chiefly grown in the Budhana, Sikarpur, Kandhla, Shamli, Baghra and Kairana parganas from which it appears that, the western half of the district is more suitable for its cultivation. Bajra, on the  other hand, is more suited to the lighter soils of the eastern parganas, and whereas at the time settlement it covered 5.3 per cent, of the total cultivated area, the protion in Bhuma Sambalhera was no less than 14 per cent , in Pur Chapar 11 per cent, and in Bhukarheri 13.8 per cent. Since the settlement there has been a distinct decrease in the area under Bajra a fact that shows improvement, as the presence of this crop is a clear sign of poor soil and careless agriculture.

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MAIZE

Maize is another kharif crop largely grown in this district. In 1861 it covered 2-7 per cent, of the total area, and at the time of settlement it had risen to 5 per cent. During the last ten years its cultivation has spread considerably, to the extent of about 15,000 acres. It has largely taken the place of cotton and indigo, but at the same time it is not grown in anything approach­ing the proportion that we find further south, as for example in Bulandshahr. Maize is now chiefly grown in the western half of the district and also in pargana Gordhanpur. Of late years there has been a large increase in Baghra, Budhana and Shikarpur.

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COTTON

Cotton is a valuable, hut not a very important, crop. At Mr. Thornton's settlement it covered 2.75 per cent, of the cultivated area and rose to 4.1 per cent, at Mr. Martin's settlement of 1860. In 1890 there was a falling off in the area under this crop, which only extended to 4.3 per cent, of the cultivation. In 1901 there has been a still further decrease, the proportion falling to only 3 per cent. Cotton requires the host land and plenty of manure, and in this district it is more profitable to cultivate such land with other crops.

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INDIGO

Indigo is rarely grown ill the district. Several years ago, when the price of indigo was high, many factories were made in different parts of the district, and in many villages vats for washing indigo were attached to the wells. But the Price fell and many of the speculators suffered severely. At Mr. Thornton's settlement indigo was hardly grown at all in the district, and again in 1860 it was practically unknown. At Mr. Miller's settlement indigo covered one per cent, of the total cultivated area but its best days were then already over. It was  chiefly grown in the parganas of Kairana, Khatauli and Baghra and aslso to a small extent in Jauli-Jansath, Jhinjhana and Bidauli, while elsewhere its cultivation was quite insgnificant. In 1901 has decreased over 2000 acres and its total extinction seems only a matter of time. The fall­ing off noticed by Mr. Miller was possibly due, in part, to the settlement: one factory at least was reopened when the operations were completed, but the principal cause of its decline is the fall in prices, added to its general unpopularity with cul­tivators.

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RICE

Rice is a valuable and more extensive crop, and in   the   tracts where a full supply of canal    water   can   be obtained   is   largely grown.      It is almost always followed   by another crop, usually gram.     Since the opening of the  Ganges  canal   the   cultivation of the finer kind of rice known   as   munji    has   increased   consi­derably.      Formerly, it could only be   grown   in    favorable spots in the khadir and near   the    tanks,   but   it  now   alternates   with cane, cotton, maize, wheat and gram in the very best land around the village.    At Mr.   Thornton's settlement   in   1840    rice   only covered 3.75 per cent, of the   total    cultivated   area ;   in    I860    it had risen to 4.3 per cent, of the cultivation:    and   in   1871    there was  a further rise to over 7 per cent.     At the settlement of 1890 rice occupied 6'5 per cent, of the cultivation, but its distribution was very uneven.    In    Gordhanpur   rice   formed   nearly   half of the whole outturn, and, as compared    with   the   rest   of   the   dis­trict, it was very much greater in the   parganas  of  Thanaa   Bhawan,   Pur    Chapar,    Bhuma   Sambalhera,    Kandhla,   Muzaffarnagar,   Charthawal    and  Jansath.      Since    the   settlement   rice-cultivation has increased by nearly 2,000  acres.  It   has   greatly fallen    off in   Gordhanpur,    but   in  the   other parganas   above-mentioned the proportion remains the same,   or    has slightly   in­creased.    Of the remaining crops, barley   and   gram mixed   with peas alone deserve   mention.    The    latter   are   now   much   more popular than formerly, and    their substitution   for   some    of  the autumn crops was the only marked change in the   agriculture  o: the district   at the   last   settlement.     They then   covered   nearly twelve per cent, of the total area, as against 3'1 per cent, in 1860. During the last ten years this change has been still more   notice­able, the area under this crop having increased by nearly 30,000 acres.     Barley at the time of settlement covered five per cent, of the cultivation, but since that   time has decreased considerably. It is not a valuable crop and is generally sign of poor land and inferior cultivation, so that its disappearance shows improvement. It should be borne in mind, however, that, though barley is  grown in inferior soil, it docs not cover all of the poor ground, and that wheat is often sown in very bad land, but at the same time its presence is an unquestionable sign of careful culti­vation.

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VALUE OF CROPS

Mr. Gracey, when Collector of the district made a minute investigation into the respective cost and profit of each crop in 1899. His figures show that the most valuable of all is sugarcane, which yields an average profit of Rs. 46-8.0per acre throughout the district. At the same time it requires far greater capital than any other crop; for not only is the rent higher, but the initial outlay in the shape of sowing and irrigation charges is very much greater. Sugarcane requires more labor than any other crop except cotton and maize, the cost being estimated at Rs. 4-8-0 per acre. The introduction of iron mills has, how­ever, reduced the cost of preparation very greatly, and at the same time the outturn per acre amounts lo 27 maunds, which is much higher than any other crop. Next to sugar-cane comes cotton, which does not require so much irrigation nor docs it have to pay so high a rent, while at the same time the sowing charges are very small indeed. The average profit per acre on an estimated average outturn of 15 maunds amounts to Us. 30-9-0. Wheat, the great staple of the district, is computed to yield 22 maunds per acre, giving a profit of By. 37. The average rent for wheat land is Its. 12, the same as in the case of cotton, but the crop costs much less to produce. Among the other crops the most important is gram, which yields Rs. 24-14-0 profit per acre, requiring no irrigation and being capable of growing well on inferior laud. Barley yields an average profit it this can only be obtained with irrigation. Rice yields Ra. 15-11-0;  the rent is comparatively high and abundant irrigation is needed, in fact, as much as is  required for sugarcane.

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SOWINGS

            Off the kharif crops, cotton, maize, juar and rice are all sown in the the month of Asarh, excep in the Kairana tahsil, where cotton is sown in Jeth. They are reaped in the months of Bhadon, Kuar 7 Kartik, the Kairana and Budhana tahsils being earlier than the rest of the district. Sugarcane is chiefly sown in the month of Phagun and also in Chait, while in the Kairana tahsil it is frequently delayed till Baisakh. That sown in Phagun is cut in the month of Kartik, but in Kairana it is cut in the month of Magh. Gram is everywhere shown in Kuar, and is reaped in Chait in all tahsils except Kairana, where the harvest is in Baisakh.

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IRRIGATION

The district is exceptionally well provided with  means of irrigation.The most important of these are the canals, there being no less than four main canals in the district.

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GANGES CANAL

Foremost among these is the main Ganges canal; which was opened m 1854 and was available for  irrigation purposes   from   the    following year. This canal   enters  the district close to the edge of   the high bank of the Ganges in the Pur Chapar pargana, and   leaves it   within some six miles to the west of the Kali Nadi in Khatauli.    During its course through the southern portion of the district it crosses the   basin   within   which   the   headwaters   of  the   Eastern   Kali collect.     The character of the country is here very different from that through which the canal runs from its   headworks   to    Asafnagar   in    the   Saharanpur district.     Here there are none of the torrents and valleys which   give rise   to    the   great, engineering works in the northern district, and no great natural obstacles had to be overcome, as there is an almost equable slope   throughout. The first design for the  portion of   the    work   lying   within this district embraced a.  canal with   a   slope of  bed amounting to 18 inches   to    the  mile,  the superfluous   declivity being disposed of by means of four descents of eight feet each in  masonry  falls at Budhpur, Belra, Jauli and Chitaura.    On a close examination of the Manglaur pargana of Saharanpur and   the  pargana  of  this district it was found  that there were occasional beds  of sand and sand   in the   shape   of    hillocks  exposed  on the surface, but that below the surface of even the best soil sand was  found at a small depth.     This   discovery   necessitated   a reconstruction of the ori­ginal design and a lowering   of the slope to   15   inches   a   mile. To    carry   off the excess of   slop; the falls were increased to ten and were designed to overcome a total    deelivity of  74  feet   be­tween   Asafnagar   and   Sumera, while    the works at these places were enlarged and strengthened. The remodeling of the canal in its present form was not completed till 1893.

Entering the district at   its 32nd mile, the canal flows almost due south as far as  Belra, running parallel   to   the   edge  of  the Ganges khadir  and   traversing the  sandy tract of Pur Chhapar and Bkukerrheri,    The slope between Roorkee and  Belra is    esti­mated at  46  feet  or   2.3 feet    to the mile, and on the portion of this section that lies  within   this  district there   are    bridges   at Dhamat, Tuglaqpur,  Nirgajni and Belra, and a fall at Nirgajni. For the purposes   of navigation   this    fall   is negotiated   by a branch   channel    on   the   left side   of  the canal  with a lock and a total length of 7.500 feet.    Just beyond Belra the canal bends slightly   towards   the  south-west, approaching the   more central portion of the high   land,   forming   the  watershed  between   the western   Kali Nadi   and   the    headwaters  of the  eastern    Kali. The distance between the two    rivers  is about eight miles, and the canal passes almost  down the centre.     To the  west  of the canal sandy hillocks appear at intervals and occasionally spread over   the  plain.    The excavations, both for  the channel  of the canal and   the  foundations  of the   works    along   it,  were sandy throughout.     Clay for  making  bricks  was scarce, and much  de­lay would have ensued were it not that the ruins of Chitaura and other old deserted towns supplied a  large quantity.   For twenty miles south of Belra the slope is 32 feet or 1-6 foot to the mile.

At the 46th  mile,   two  miles south  of Belra,  the canal   is crossed by a   bridge at  Bhopa.    At Jauli, two miles further on, there is another   bridge    and  a fall. Two miles south, again at title 50th mile, the Anupshahr branch leaves the canal on   the left bank.   From this point the canal flows in a south-westerly direc­tion for the rest of its course through this district..  On the 34th mile there is a  bridge at Nagla Mubarak on the road from Muzaffarnagar to Jansath, and a mile and-a-half below  this there is falls and a lock at Chitaura.    The next bridge is at Rasulpur Sarai, at the 58th miles, and three miles further on the canal    is crossed by an  iron girder bridge  over   which  runs the   North-Western Railway.     A short distance below this is the Khatuli bridge, and from   here a   cut connected   with    the   west   Kali river has been made to  form an  escape   for superfluous  water. This cut is sixty feet in width at its head and is divided into ten openings of six feet each. The canal is here about three and-a-half miles from the river, and the difference of level between the bed of the canal and that of the river is 29.21 feet. The only remaining bridge in the district is that at Satheri, over which passes the road from Khatauli to Budhana.

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ANUPSHAHR CANAL

The Anupshahr branch canal was formerly known as the Fatehgarh branch, as it was intended to carry it on as far as the latter place, but the name was changed when it was found that there was not a sufficient supply of water for irrigation purposes much below Anupshahr. In this district the branch runs ah such a low level that it is of little use for irrigation and only gives water to a few villages in the extreme south-eastern corner. It traverses the north-east of Jansath pargana and the south­west of Bhuma Sambalhera. One mile below its headworks there is a bridge at Kheri-Firozabarl. Two miles further south is a second bridge at Kamhera. At the 5th mile there is a bridge at Dhansri, and at a mile and-a-half below this is another bridge at Salarpur. Near Churiala on the 10th mile, there is a bridge on the road from Muzaffarrnagar to Miranpur, and close to the bridge there are falls. Two miles below this is the Bhuma bridge, the last in this district.

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DISTRIBUTERIES

Besides the Anupshahr branch, the Ganges canal gives off a number of smaller distributaries, which provide irrigation to this district. The right main distributary leaves the canal at the 21st mile, a short distance below Roorkee, and flows through the parganas of Pur Chappar, Muzaffarnagar and Khatauli. Since the construction of the Deoband canal the upper portion of this distributary has been abandoned, but lower down it is still fed from the main canal by the Tansipur, right Muham-madpur and other distributaries further south. The left main distributary leaves the canal on the 22nd mile, and flows close to the high bank of the Ganges through Pur Chhapar and Bhukar-heri and on into Sambalhera, eventually joining the Anupshahr branch. At Muhammadpur, close to the Muzaffarnagar boundary, the right Muhammadpur distributary leaves the canal, flowing through the north-west of Pur Chhapar to join the right main distributary at   Bhaisaini. The short distance below its outlets the Bashera rajbaha leaves the canal   and flows for a long dis­tance almost parallel to   the main  channel   past  the   village   ofBasehra to  join   the   right   main   distributary  near Mansurpur. Further south, at Jauli, the Jauli distributary takes   off,   leading through   the   north-west  of Jauli Jansath to  Jahangirpur, where it joins the   right   main  distributary. Besides these, there are several smaller distributing channels   of lesser importance.    The Anupshahr    branch   gives  off distributaries   at   Salarpur    and  Churiala on the right and left banks, respectively.

In addition to the works already mentioned, there   are  mills at Nirgajini and Chitaura on the Ganges canal.     These are leased out by auction to contractors who stipulate to pay rents, at certain rates dependent on the water-supply available.     The rates charg­ed by  the contractors to the   public vary   from  throe annas six pies  to   four    annas   per  maund.     In  both  these mills there are six  pairs  of stones   worked  with  country  wheels.    There    are inspection bungalows on   the  main   canal at Tughlaqpur, Belra, Jauli and Chitaura, on  the Anupshahr  branch at  Salarpur   and Bhuma, and on the distributaries at Barta in Pur Chapar, Rohana in  Muzaffarnagar,   Morna    in   Bhukarheri,    Kasimpur  in  Bhuma Sambalhera and at Bhainsi and Mohinddinpur in  Khatauli. The canal is still used to a great extent for the purposes of navigation, the principal commercial depot in this district being at Khatauli.

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RESULTS OF CANAL EXTENSION

The construction of the Ganges canal resulted in the ample provision of water to a tract in which, owing to  the   prevalence of sand,  irrigation   was  in   former    times practically   unknown. Towards the south-east of the district in Bhuma,   to the south  of Jansath,   and  in a greater  portion  of Khatauli,   well irrigation was common, but   the   main   portion   of   the   area   now   waterd by the canal had few wells and no tanks or other reservoirs for water. The whole area was then  dependent upon   the   rainfall,  and only here and   there  and  within the low lands of the rivers could any reliance be placed upon the  outturn  from  cultivation. Now with the exception of  of  a   few villages in each pargana, the whole of the eastern portion of  the   district  through   which   the canal runs is amply supplied    with   water.    In   addition to thepractical prevention of the occurrence   of famines in  seasons   of the drought, the canal has had a marked influence in promoting the cultivation of trees. All along the canal there are flourishing plantations of shishams, tun, babul and other trees, and the ex­ample so successfully shown has been followed to some extent by the proprietary bodies throughout the tract. The canal has also had a marked influence for good on the character of the population. The industrious classes have been enabled to improve their style of cultivation and to extend the areas of the best crops, while the idler and less respectable have discovered that cultivation can be made to pay more certainly and more profit­ably than less reputable pursuits. The extension of high culti­vation, the increasing certainty of a fair return in agriculture, and the reclamation of many idle classes are among the benefits due to the canal, and to this should probably be added some improvement in the general style of living, in the credit for which the canal is entitled to share with other agencies.

On the other side, however, there are many positive draw­backs, of which the most important is the damage done to health and to the soil by the over-saturation of the country, and the rise of the water level caused by obstructed drainage. While it was not possible to turn aside a great work like the Ganges canal on account of the depression in which the eastern Kali Nadi has its source, it is to be regretted that the existence of this line of drainage was not earlier and more practically acknowledged. Besides this, distributary after distributary was run out without regard to the drainage of the country, and at first there was no practical admission of the necessity of allowing waterway under the irrigation channels. The remedy, too, was rendered more difficult by a similar omission on the part of the railway engi­neers. All this resulted in a good deal of damage which compelled the authorities to take measures to improve the situation. In the eastern parganas the old Jansath rajbaha was abandoned, drainage channels were dug in Jansath and Khatauli, and the bed of the eastern Kali was straightened and deepened. Not­withstanding these measures, the eastern parganas still suffer in seasons ol' heavy rainfall, and at Jansath it has been found necessary to stop irrigation altogether. The damage done ill this part of the district is, however, most noticeable in Pur Chappar and Muzaffarnagar.  The former is a   sandy   tract  which   originally required no outlet for its drainage, the  rainfall   in  ordinary as   being   absorbed    by   the  soil.      The   introduction of the canal caused a rise in the water level,  owing  partly to   the  high level   at   which   the   right   main  distributary   and    its   branches were constructed,   and   partly    to   the   obstruction  to drainage caused    by   numerous   high-banked   irrigation channels.      Before the introduction of the canal the water level varied from   100   to 60 feet  below   the   surface :   when    Mr.   Odell   inspected     the pargana   it   had     risen    to    a   height   varying   from   50  to   20 feet,  and it   is  now   much    higher.    The sandy ridges on either side of the pargana concentrated the flood water on a  line about two miles wide along the northern    border   of   pargana   Muzaffarnagar,   where    the   right   main   distributary  divides  it into two parts.    In the west the pressure is relieved to some   extent    by the  Barla  Chhapar    drainage  cut,  although   this   does   not   ap­pear to be sufficient to prevent all   possibility   of  floods.      To the east   of  the  distributary    there is no outlet, so that the whole of the   sandy    tract   up   to    the   ridge  is saturated.     There are con­siderable tracts of marshy land here, and   the numerous   drainage cuts afford only   partial   relief.      At the  time of the last settle­ment some of the estates   that  were  once the best    in   Muzaffarnagar had suffered  severely  of late  years,   but since that date remedial measures have been undertaken.

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DRAINS

In the northern division of the Ganges   canal, which   extends from the Saharanpur boundary to the Bhopa bridge,   no  less than 147    miles of  drains   have  been constructed.     Of these, over 19 miles   lie    in   the   Solani   khadir    and     are    percolation   drains, which were gradually advanced   as   the   swamps   silted   up, and were constructed between 1870 and 1890.    Reference has already been made    to   this   percolation, which   resulted in   the  water logging of   much  good   land  that   formerly    in dry seasons produce good crops of cane, cotton, wheat and rice.The drainage undertaken in the khadir resulted in considerable benefit, although much of  it  was of a  temporary nature;   the recent improvement   noticeable  in  the north    of the tract being rather to   natural   causes   than  to artificial  drainage.  Of   the other drains the most important have been constructed during    last   few   years.     The   work   was begun in    1875, when the three  Muzaffarnagar   drains    with  a total  length of over fifteen miles, were completed.  In   1878 two   more   importance    drains, known as the Narah and Dhandhera cuts, with a   total   length of over   seven  miles,   were  constructed,    but    from  that date up to 1893   there   were   very   few   similar  works undertaken, the only noticable exceptions being the Badhiwali and    Rahi   drains   com­pleted  in   1884.  From   1893 onwards the work  has   been  very rapidly carried forward.      The chief drainage channels   completed since   1893  comprise    the   Harsauli  drain   of over   17   miles in length   completed   in   1898 ;   the   Pur   cut,    14   miles,     finished in   1896;    the   Pinna   drain,   15   miles in   length,   completed  in 1900; the Razaqullahpur cut, the  Basehra    drain   diversion,   the Meghakheri,   Tajpur,   and   Khadla  drains,  all of which   were completed between 1896 and 1901.

In   the    Meerut   division   of  the   Gauges   canal,    from Bhopa southwards, the Canal Department has been no less active.   Here the   work   of drainage   was   instituted   earlier,   and   in  1876   a number of works   were   commenced    and were completed during the  following  ten  years.      They comprise seven drains with  a total    length   of    117   miles,    the  chief  being   the  Kadirabad, Karauli, Jansath and Sheikhpura drainage   works.    In the    fol­lowing year   the  Bhainsi    drain  was taken in hand, and in 1878 the   work   of deepening    the  channel   of    the  Kali  was  begun, and several  other small  cuts  were constructed.     In 1879 the Khatauli and Ladpur drainage works were begun  and completed in the same year.    From 1880 to 1886 a number of drains were constructed, while several of the former channels   were enlarged or extended.  Very many smaller works of the same nature were undertaken  between the  years  1892   and   1900.  In all, over 230 miles of drainage cuts and channels   have    been   constructed since 1875 in that portion of the Meerut division, which lies within this district. Such a work could not fail to have a bene­ficial effect, although the danger of saturation can not be said to have been entirely removed. Along the Anupshahr canal there was less necessity for such works, and the total length of drainage channels does not amount to five miles. At the same time, in justice to the canal department it must be remembered that the evil of water logging only became   marked   after the construction of the canal on account of the   very  benefits   which   the  itself had conferred upon the land.    In the old days, land in less request and wide margins were left round  ponds and depressions, so that flooding only occurred in seasons of excessive rainfall. With the, introduction of the canal   cultivation    spread, small ponds were ploughed up, and the   area of cultivated   land so situated    as    to   be   liable   to    injury     from    heavy   but    not exceptional rainfall was largely increased.

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DEOBAND CANAL

The  Deoband  branch   of the Ganges canal is a comparatively recent addition to   the  district and  has  proved  an   unequivocal boon.     It was constructed about the time of the  famine of 1877, and completed in 1880; it has succeeded in bringing   the   greater part    of   the   Duab   between    the   Hindan and the Western Kali within the reach of ample water for irrigation purposes.    It leaves the main   Ganges canal at   the   28th   mile   from   what was for­merly the outlet of the   right    main  distributary.    After flowing through   the   Deoband   pargana   of  the   Saharanpur    district,   it enters Muzaffarnagar near Kotesra in the extreme  north   of  par­gana Charthawal.    It flows in a somewhat irregular   course   past the  town of Charthawal   and    thence   through   the Baghra and Shikarpur  parganas,   terminating    in  a   ravine    of the Hindan river, not far  from   the   town    of Budhana.    The canal gives off two distributaries, both on its left bank. The   first, completed in 1882, is known as the Lohari rajbaha and leaves   the canal at its   30th   mile,   half-way   between   Chartbawal    and Ghisukhera; it thence   flows   past   the   village   of  Lohari    and   on    through Baghra  and   Shikarpur,    eventually   falling into the Kali Nadi. The second is the Charthawal rajbaha, completed in   1881,  which takes off in the 31st miles closed to the town of Charthwal, and irrigates the central portion of the Dudb   between the main canal distributary.       The   channels of   this canal are aligned as far as possible, along the watersheds, relying for their flow rather than the natural slope of the   country  than  from  their own excessive elevation. Consequently,   the fields   are   watered by left to a larger extent than elsewhere, but there are   not many estates between Himdan  and   the   Kali   that do not derive benefit from the canal.    In this portion of the district the   canal has interfered very slightly with the natural drainage lines, and in consequence but few subsequent drainage operations have had to be undertaken. In the days when water was scarce it was a common practice to build villages in the depression between two watersheds, so that the tanks might be more easily filled. Now that the water level has risen, water is only too plentiful, and some of the villages are surrounded by it on all sides during rains. Measures have been taken for the relief of the worst of these by the excavation of drainage cuts. The only tract that has really suffered is the land immediately to the north-west of Charthawal, where the canal caused a considerable accumulation of flood water. In 1900 a drain was made from Ghisukhera to tne Hindan in order to relieve the lands in the neighbourhood of that river that were in danger of being saturated; but the central portion of the tract has never suffered in any way. In the neighborhood of the rivers, however, the people frequently complain of the increased violence of floods since the canal was made ; and these are doubtless connected in some way with the rising of the water level, while the khddir of the Hindan, has deteriorated to a large extent owing to percolation and the use of the river as a canal escape. There are inspection bungalows on the main canal at Charthawal, Baghra and Shahpur, and on the Lohari distributary at Purbalian.

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THE EASTERN JAMUNA CANAL

The eastern Jamuna canal is the oldest canal in the district. In its present form it was opened in 1830, but the canal really dates from far earlier times. It was originally construct­ed by the Emperor Muhammad Shah, and repaired from time to time by the Rohillas. Traces of its old alignment are still to be seen in the northern part of its course : this had to be abandoned owing to its unscientific construction. The works on the canal were designed by Colonel Robert Smith, and were completed in five years from the commencement. The canal enters this district at the village of Aurangabad in the north of pargana Thana Bhawan, and flows southwards through Shamli and Kandhla into the Meerut district.

It enters the district in the 56th mile, and just within the boundary of Muzaffarnagar is crossed by a bridge on the road between Jalalabad and Shamli. Below this bridge the canal belongs to the lower   division.    At   the    57th   mile   there is a bridge and a fall near the village of Banehra.    Two miles further south at Yarpur, there is another bridge and a fall,   from  which point canal runs to Mastgarh   bridge   in   the   62nd mile. 2 miles lower there is a bridge at Madalpur,   and  another at Bhainswal in the 65th mile, where there is a fall and a regulator. From Bhainswal southwards the canal runs to Kheri, where there is a bridge and a fall at the 71st mile, the intervening bridges being at Banat Badheo, Mundet and Jhinjhana. There are no other falls on the canal in this district, while the bridges are at Lelon, Khandrauli, Pinjokhra, Fatehpur, Kandhla, Bhars and Nala. The only mill on the canal is that at Yarpur, where there are six pairs of stones.

The canal has a number of distributaries in this district. One of the most important is the Kalarpur distributary, which leaves the canal in the Saharanpur district at the 44th mile. It is especially valuable as watering the land between the Hindan and the Kirsani rivers. This distributary was opened in 1840. It flows along the borders of the Charthawal, Baghra and Shikilrpur parganas, falling into the Hindan river near Budhana. It has a branch known as the Loi distributary, which takes off at Lalukhera, a village on the road from Shamli to Muzaffarnagar, and terminates at Loi on the eastern border of Kandhla, a small escape running into the Kirsani river. All the other distribu­taries of the canal lie west of the Kirsani. The more important comprise the Jalalabad and Papri distributaries, which leave the canal at Madhopur in Saharanpur at the 52nd mile, on the left and right banks respectively. The former joins the Yarpur distributary, which takes off at Banehra and flows south as far as Shamli. The latter unites with the Bunta distributary, which again joins the Kairana distributary, which is the main supply channel west of the canal. All the distributaries on the west of the canal join the Kairana,    the  chief being   the    Bhainswal,Bhadeo, kaserva, Khandrauli and  Kandhla rajbahas.     On the east besides the Yarpur there are the Banat,  Malipur,  Banehra and the Elam distributary, the most important being   the    Malipur which leaves the canal just above the Kheru fall. About the 1868 the Yarpur distributary was carried into the Duab of the Hindan and Kirsani by an aquaduct over the Kairi, but this was des­troyed by a flood in 1882, on account of which the Loi distributary was united to the Kalarpur. In addition to the above, a small channel has been taken into a few villages in Bidauli, chiefly for the benefit of the Bauriya settlement in that pargana. There are inspection bungalows on the main canal at Yarpur in Thana Bhawan, at Bhainswal and Kheri in Shamli, and at Kandhla; on the Kalarpur distributary at Lalukheri and Loi ; and on the Bidauli distributary at Singra in Jhinjhana.

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DRAIN(S)

The bends of the old course of the canal at different points which were left untouched by the remodeling operations caused the formation of numerous swamps, which are especially notice­able in the neighborhood of Bhainswal, Shamli and Kandhla and in the whole tract of country lying along the right bank. Besides this, the numerous rajbhas cause a great obstruction of the drainage. This mischief done had become serious as long ago as Mr. Martin's settlement, when drainage cuts were commenced. Of late years, especially since the unhealthiness of the town of Shamli attracted attention, more vigorous measures have been undertaken. The damage done was great and extensive. Reh made its appearance at an early date in the land through which the canal passes and was made the subject of a special inquiry. The villages affected, though close to the canal and easily irrigable, altogether failed to keep up their position as com­pared with estates possessing similar advantages elsewhere. In many cases it was necessary to reduce the assessment, while in others only a very small increase could be taken. The drainage was first begun in 1875, and up to 1891 no less than five and-a-half lakhs of rupees were expended in this way. In the north of the district there are the Khanpur, Harhar and Banehra drains in the neighborhood of Thana Bhawan ; further south the chief drains are the Bhainswal, Silawar and Shamli cuts, while east of Kandhla the large Fatehpur drain carries off the superfluous water into the Kirsani; of these, the Bhainswal cut lies on the right of the canal, its purpose being to carry off a portion of the drainage which comes down the old channel into the Katha; the Salawar cut on the east does the same duty, and leads intothe Kirsani; the Shamli cut relieves  the   town  of that name, which formerly suffered severely in wet years ; and the Fatehpur drain starts from the large jhil of Fatehpur Aldi in Kandhlaa about a mile from the right bank, and passing under the canal by a siphon leads into the Kirsani. In all, nearly 110 miles of drains have been constructed with a view to relieving the pressure caused by the obstructed drainage. With regard to these drains generally, it should be mentioned that, while in the wet seasons they are absolutely necessary; in other years they may possibly be too efficient in their action. Occasional com­plaints have been made that the village tanks have been emptied in this manner, and in a series of dry seasons the people might be seriously inconvenienced, although the flow might be easily controlled by the occasional construction of sluices.

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WELLS

Besides the canals, wells are still a most important means ofsupplying water for irrigation in this district. Throughout theuplands, where water is found at a great depth, masonry wells are scarce and earthen unprotected wells can only be dugat a great expense and do not last long. The average cost of con­structing masonry wells throughout the district ranges from Rs. 450 for a well worked by two bullocks to Rs. 750 in the case ofa larger well with four pairs of bullocks. Where, however, thebed of clay lies unusually low, these rates are considerablyexceeded. Unprotected wells are chiefly found in the Budhanatahsil, where canal water is not obtainable, but they are also tobe found in most part of the district, where similar circumstancesprevail. In Budhana the great depth of the water level and theconsistency of the soil admit of the construction of such wellswith unusual security and permanence. Wells of great depthmay occasionally be seen here with no artificial support of anykind on the inside, but frequently that part of the well whichlies below the water level is strengthened by a cylinder madeeither of woven bamboos or roughly-hewn planks. Above thewater the well is entirely earthen. The cost of such wells varies from Rs. 30 to Rs. 45, and they sometimes last for as long as30 years. During the rains their mouths are protected by raising a   little mound   of earth around them, thus preventing surface water from draining into them.

Throughout the whole of the tract lying between the Jamuna and the Katha and in villages east of the latter the usual bucket or charas is not employed, the wells being often worked by Persian wheels. Such wells are very inexpensive both in construction and in working, as they are not deep nor do they require so firm a foundation. They can be worked also by the weakest and cheapest cattle and require no skilled labor, since a small boy can manage the whole irrigation himself. Such irrigation, however, appears to be inferior, and, except in the immediate neighborhood of Kairana, land irrigated from Persian wheels never fetches high rents in this district. Sometimes the same system is applied to the Katha, an adaptation of the Persian wheels known as a naini being used to raise water from the river. The dhenkli or lever is seldom to be seen, but may be occasion­ally found on the banks of rivers or ponds where the water level is unusually high.

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THE OTHER SOURCES

The other means of irrigation, such as tanks and the various streams and rivers, are only used to a very small extent in this district. In the Budhana tahsil they are practically non-exist­ent. There are no tanks in any of_the parganas of this _tahsil, and almost the same may be said of Kairana, Bidauli, Pur Chhapar, Gordhanpur, Bhukarheri and Sambalhera. The greatest number of tanks is to be found in the parganas of Thana Bhawan, Shamli, Baghra and Jauli-Jansath. In Thana Bhawan 131 tanks are returned as available for irrigation, but the average area watered from them during the past five years is less than 600 acres. In fact, less than one per cent, of the whole irrigated area is watered from tanks. Even less is irrigated from the rivers. They are nowhere used to a great extent, and in no pargana the area thus irrigated amounts to 300 acres. Such irrigation is chiefly confined to, the western half of the district, the Kirsani and Katha being chiefly used for the purpose.

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IRRIGATED AREA

At the time of Mr. Miller's settlement in 1891 the total irri­gated area of the district amounted to 381,364 acres, or over 55 per cent, of the cultivation. It must be remembered, however, that Mr. Miller classed as irrigated the entire area which was capable of irrigation and not only that which was actually watered. It is almost impossible to obtain a correct estimate of the wet area from the figures of any single yeasr, as a  great variation ensues from the ordinary rotation of crops, the difference in the irrigated area in two successive years being thus frequently a mere matter of chance. The average irrigated area for the five years ending July 1901 is 288,707 acres, or roughly 43 per cent, of the total cultivation. Of this, 195,090 acres, or 67 cent, were watered from the canals, 88,534 acres, or about 30 per cent., from wells, and the remainder from tanks and other sources. At the time of Mr. Miller's settlement the well-irrigated area amounted to over 34 per cent, of the whole. The decrease in the thirty years preceding the settlement had been very much more marked. This is only to be expected, for it everywhere happens, that with the introduction of canals wells either fall in on account of the rise in the water level or else are abandoned. The best cultivators readily admit that well irrigation in the long run is preferable, and also that irrigation by lift is better than irrigation by flow, but their practice is not in accordance with their theory; for a full supply of flush irriga­tion is in reality the most valuable quality a field can possess, and commands a high rent even where there is danger of satu­ration. Well irrigation requires some capital; it also involves severe and continuous labor, whereas canal irrigation is cheaper and the water runs of itself into the fields. Besides, canal irri­gation has the great advantage that it sets free a number of people whose labor can be devoted to other agricultural opera­tions; consequently, high cultivation can be extended over a much wider area than otherwise be possible. Above all this, however, lies the predominant fact that the canals have brought about a very large increase in the land-revenue, and further have rendered the district practically secure from all natural calamities.

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FEMINE

Before the opening of the canals Muzaffarnagar must have suffered much from the famines, which have periodically visited the Daub. With regard to the great famines that occurred prior to the commencement of the eighteenth century, we have no information   whatever that   especially   concerns the tract known   as    the    district    of     Muzaffarnagar. We only know that the whole daub suffered   severely     in           the femine of 1291during  the  reign of    Jalal-ud-din  Firoz consequently we may assume that in this district there was no exception to the general distress. Another great famine occurred during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, when the whole country was laid waste. Later, a terrible period of dearth followed the invasion of Timur, who at any rate marched through the eastern portion of the district, laying waste the whole country with fire and sword. Other famines occurred in the Upper Duab in 1424, 1471, 1631 and 1661, but these are only mentioned generally by the historians, and no reference is made to Muzaffarnagar, chiefly owing to the absence of any large or important towns.

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FEMINE OF 1784

The great Chalisa  famine   of  1784  was  more  severe  in the lower Duab than in the northern districts. North of Meerut the distress does not seem to have been so great, but we have no general information with regard to this district. In 1803, the first year of British occupation, there was a considerable scarcity here, as the spring crops were injured by hailstorms, while the rains were scanty in the beginning and failed about the middle of August. Severe drought was also felt in 1824, but this also tells more heavily on Agra and Rohilkhand than on the Upper Duab. This district seems to derive considerable benefit from its position, although in a less degree than Saharanpur, where the hill-storms frequently bring rain, the effects of which are never felt at Meerut.

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FEMINE OF 1837

The year of  famine    best    remembered,  of which we    have  authentic records, is 1837.  The rains entirely failed, and great distress was everywhere prevalent.  Though a fall of rain in the beginning of February   1838 lessened the famine area   in this district, it suffered greatly in common with the remainder of the Duab, and its influence was shown in the large proportion of land shown as recently abandoned in the returns of the settle­ment of 1840.    The   remissions of revenue   on account    of   this famine for the year 1837 amounted to Rs.  39,286.   From that date the district enjoyed comparative   immunity   from scarcity till 1860, when the Anupashahr branch of the   Ganges canal was undertaken   as  a   famine  relief  work.  Owing, however, to the presence of the canals   the pressure of the scarcity   was    never felt so severely as elsewhere, and during January    1861   it   was only found necessary expend Rs. 283 in outdoor relief to 3,182 persons, while in    Meerut  as   many  as 25,864 persons came for relief, and in Saharanpur the   numbers were over  17,000.    For next six months, however, it was found necessary to relieve an average of 710 persons daily on an average daily cost of Rs.  174. The   favorable   nature   of the    season, during   and   after July, enabled the cultivators to plough their land, and Rs. 25,000 were given  in  advances    for     the   purpose of purchasing stock and seeds. The outstanding balances of revenue rose to Rs. 1,34,095, of which sum   the collection of Rs.    1,03,116    was postponed indefinitely, and Rs. 31,531 for a certain   period, a   third of   this being ultimately remitted.

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FEMINE OF 1868

We next come to the famine of 1868. In this district there was scarcely any rain from   the   end of July 1S68 to February1869.    The rain crops failed   in   the unirrigated   portion of the upland, and the sowings for the cold-weather crops were generally confined   to   the irrigable area.    On such    lands, however, the yield from the rabi harvests   was  good.     Moreover, at the close of 1868 there were large stores of grain, hoarded in the grain-pits of the district,  and these  changed  hands  several  times during the last  three   months  of the year     without   ever being  opened.     The existence   of these supplies    kept   down     prices, and distress was mitigated by the high   wages    and ample work pro­curable on the Sindh,    Panjab  and   Delhi  Railway,   then under construction.     In   August     1868   cartmen    could earn   eight    to twelve annas a day, and there was  abundant  demand  for  every class of labour.    The prices ruling at the  close of the   year    rose to nine seers per rupee for wheat, eleven seers for barley and ten seers for bajra : considerable distress was  thus occasioned, so that was eventually found necessary to provide both gratuitous relief and famine works. Between the 4th of January and 15th of Sep­tember, 1869, a daily average of 53 persons  received gratuitous relief at a  cost Rs.  2,659.    The most important of the Femine works were the Shamli and Muzaffarnagar road, and road from Deaoband in the Saharanpur district through the north eastern pargana to Bijnor.  During the last three months of 1868 immigrants arrived from Bikanir and the western states of Rajputana, but refused to work :  the able-bodied passed on to the east and the destitute and sick were relieved in the poor-houses. Altogether, between December 1868 and October 1869, an average of 195 persons were employed daily on relief works in this district at a cost of Rs. 6,583. Trade was vigorous during the famine, and the district exported not only its own stores, but was the channel of an important transit trade in grain. In September 1868 there were large imports of corn from Meerut, and straw for cattle came in December from Saharanpur. In January 1869 great quantities of maize came by the Ganges canal into Khatauli. Again in March 600 maunds of grain came in by rail from the Punjab, but the subsequent strain on the local supplies for the Punjab, Saharanpur and Rohilkhand was very great. In March the northern parganas exported wheat to Saharanpur, and towards the end of the same month considerable consign­ments were sent to Umballa. During the first week in April the Umballa markets received 2,000 maunds of grain from this district, and in the following week Rs. 6,000 worth. In July 1869 exports went on to Agra, Bhawani, Bijnor, and by the canal to Cawnpore. The drain towards Umballa, also, continued and did not cease until after the rains of 1869. On the 3rd of September 2,550 maunds of grain were despatched, and the high rates in August, which equalled the rates prevailing during the most critical period, must be due to the same cause. The coarser grains soon became as dear as the finer, for though some relief was given by the kharif of 1868, in February 1869 juar and bajra were offered at higher prices than wheat, and the scarcity of these grains was still more conspicuous in the succeeding months until the demand for wheat in August 1869 brought the prices once more nearly level, wheat being quoted at 10-1/2 seers per rupee and juar at 9-3/4 seers.

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RECENT FEMINES

Since 1869 the district has been practically free from famines.   In    1877,  1896   and    1900   considerable  distress    was   caused   in many parts of these provinces and elsewhere by drought  and  the consequent scarcity; but in the Muzaffarnagar district, while    the pinch   of  high   prices    was   felt, it was never found necessary to open relief works.     The prosperity of the district caused the    im­migration   of  a number of persons from less fortunately situated tracts, and these immigrants were almost the   only people in real distress.    They, as well as a certain number of the poorest classes, are fed by private charity ; but there  was always an    ample demand for labour, and everyone   could on each occasion have found work had   they   been inclined to undertake   it.     The  immunity by the district is very   closely  connected   with   the   construction of the various canals, the  benefits derived from artificial means  of irrigation   having been conclusively proved by the test of actual experience.

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PRICES

While, however, artificial assistance enabled the cultivators to grow their crops in years of drought and thus to weather the storm, the recorded prices show that in such years the poorer classes must have undergone considerable privation. In Mr. Miller's settlement report a number of diagrams are shown illustrating the prices of the different staples in the district from 1841 to 1890. From this it appears that there was a very considerable drop in the prices of almost all commodities after the disappearance of the results of the famine of 1868. Low prices ruled throughout the district till 1877, when everything rose sharply. The price of wheat rose to above 15 seers in 1870, falling in the following year to 26 seers. In 1877 it rose again to nearly 17 seers, but two years later the price gradually declined, reaching its lowest point of nearly 26 seers in 1884. From that year there was a gradual and almost con­stant rise till 1892, when the average price for wheat throughout the district was 14-1/4 seers. The prices fell again con­siderably in 1894, but rose in the following years, reaching their highest point in 1897, when the average annual price of wheat was less than ten seers. The year 1897 exhibits a scale of prices far higher than that recorded in any previous year. Barley rose to eleven seers, bajra to 9-1/4 seers and juar to 10-1/2 seers. The price of barley was altogether exceptional, the highest rate recorded at any previous time being 18-1/4 seers in while even in the famine year of 1861 it was no higher than 20 seers.

         At the time of Mr. Cadell's settlement there was a very great variety of opinion with regard to the rise of prices, and the officers than engaged in the investigation could not satisfy themselves as   to  the  conclusion to be drawn from the available figures.    The Collector thought that a rise of 23 per cent, might; be assumed; but his assistants were confident that there had been no such rise, and that during the term    of   the   expiring   settlement   prices  had  on   the    whole   either   remained    stationary or had fallen.     The Commissioner   agreed    with the collector;   the Board   of  Revenue    with   the   assistants.     Mr.   Cadell    believed that    there had   been some rise, and subsequently, in comparing the period from 1820   to    1840   with   that    of  1850   to    1870,   he placed   the   rise of different   staples    at   from   7    to 34 per cent. It is always difficult to form an accurate comparison, for prices may be   given for    different   seasons of the year or the methods adopted by the merchants for striking an average   may   vary,    or again different qualities of the same staple may be taken.   Nor do the weights remain constant, as in some cases the standard seer is used, while the present local sear   differs   considerably    from   the old   measures.    Mr.    Miller considered that a fair estimate might be taken by   examining   the  prices   for fifty    years.    He   thus came   to the conclusion that the prices of food-grains were on the whole about 80 per cent,  higher  than   in  the period    preceding  Mr. Martin's  settlement,  but   that    during  the  period    of this settlement the rise had been comparatively slight, and   that    this rise   was    confined to the rabi  staple.    Subsequent experience seems to show that    Mr. Miller   took  a  somewhat too optimistic view of the case, for since 1890 prices have risen throughout   the district to  a  most alarming extent,   so that  it seems that the upward tendency of prices shown  in  Mr.   Miller's   diagrams at the  end  of the    period was not a mere temporary variation, but the beginning of a general and steady  rise  in  the  price  of all staples.    Allowance must, of course, be made for years of scarcity, but this does not account for the fact   that   during   the  past   ten years,  with   the single exception of 1894, prices have ruled very much higher than in any preceding period.

A very noticeable point in the history of prices in this dis­trict is that nowadays there are none of the excessive variations that formerly occurred from time to time. Prior to the mutiny and the famine of 1861 the average was very low, but the sudden drops and rises were extraordinary and must at times have pressed very hardly on the poor population. In 1851. for instance, wheat rose at a bound from 49 seers to 25 seers. Three years later it fell to 47 seers and then rose to 15 seers in 1861, so that  the famine of the latter year must have    been   very severe  indeed,  although  the   highest   prices   would not be consi­dered excessive   to-day.    The   general    rise  of  prices,   however, is not peculiar to this district, and rather deserves treatment in a work on the general fiscal history of the Indian Empire than in an account of a single district.      Whatever the causes may have been, it is at least certain that they did not originate in Muzaffarnagar, and we can only point to the fact of the rise, noting that a similar state of things has occurred in all the districts of this division.

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TRADE

Formerly, the great grain mart of the district was Jalalabad, which continued to hold this position for some time after the construction of the railway, although on account of its distance from the rail and the great lines of communication it was bound soon to give way to some more favorably situated place. At the present time Muzaffarnagar is the most important place in the district. Originally, it was no better than a large village, but the location of the district headquarters here and subsequently the construction of the railway have raised it to the rank of a small towm. It is now an important centre of the wheat trade, and during the exporting seasons its bazars present a spectacle of unusual activity. Notwithstanding attempts to improve them, the streets still have a look of poverty and neglect, and contrast unfavorably, as far as appearance goes, with the bazars of the old-established marts like Shamli and Miranpur. The railway has altogether revolutionized the trade lines of the district. Kairana, Shamli and Budhana have given place to Muzaffar­nagar and Khatauli. Kairana is still the largest town and has some trade with the Punjab, although it suffers from its distance from the railway on cither side. Budhana has a tahsil and so retains some of its old importance as a stronghold of the Begam Somru. Jansath is an old town but of no importance as a mart. Thana Bhawan, Jalalabad and Jhinjhana and Kandhla show many vestiges of former prosperity, but have a depressed, and in many parts a deserted, look now.

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MARKETS

Almost the whole of the export trade of the   district  is  carried on by means  of  the   railway, and consequently the places which possess railway stations are all of more or less    importance as  centres of  the grain trade.    Perhaps the most marked influ­ence of the railway is visible in  the   town   of Khatauli,   a   place that  is  yearly   of  growing   importance,   and  that   not only on account of its situation,   but  also  by reason of the wealth and enterprise of its leading    residents.    In addition   to  the   grain-exporting centres, a certain amount of trade is carried on  grain and other commodities at all the   chief   towns  and  many   of the larger    villages.    Regular markets   are held in these places once or twice a week, the amount of trade varying    with   the   locality. None of them are, however, of more than local importance with the exception of Basi, a small place in   eastern   Shikarpur      Here a considerable cattle market is held, the trade   being   mainly   in the   hands  of the    Musalmans  of    the   neighborhood.     Large numbers of cattle are bought and sold at this   market, and  cus­tomers   resort,  here  from  all   the neighboring districts.    In a small village near  Thana    Bhawan   there  is  a  leather    market, which is largely resorted to.

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MANUFACTURES

The manufactures of the district are of very little import­ance. In seversl places notably Gangeru, blankets are made and these find purchasers not only in this district, but elsewhere. At Kairana there is some small business in printing cotton cloth, but the manufactures of the place have no widespread reputation, and the goods are chiefly disposed of in this district. Miranpur bears a certain reputation for its pottery, a coarse blue faience that is of an inferior make to that of Bulandshahr and Bahadurgarh in Meerut. At Miranpur, too, papier mache is also manufactured in small quantities, and specimens are occasionally procured for the annual exhibition at Muzaffarnagar, but there is no demand for this at ordinary times.

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GRAIN EXPORT

Generally speaking, the trades of the district are only such as are required to supply the wants of an agricultural popula­tion, and its commerce does not extend beyond speculation in, and transport of, agricultural produce. Most noticeable is the export of wheat, which has obtained a good name and commands a high price in the European market. Large quantities of sugar, usually unrefined, are also exported mainly by railway, but a considerable amount is still carried on camels that come  down in the large numbers from Pan jab for the   purpose.    Some attempts were made between 1868 and 1871 to gauge the amount of produce locally consumed and the amount of produce exported. From the figures then ascertained it appeared   that   wheat    and barley, rice and the millets formed the staples of the export, and that   the district on an average could spare about 80,000 tons of food-grains for export.    At the time of the   last   settlement Mr. Miller made similar inquiries, but confined his attention to wheat and sugar.    The figures were found to vary greatly according to the season.    In the five years   from   1881    to   1885   an average amount of 7,87,557 mounds of wheat was exported from the Muzaffarnagar and Khatauli stations  annually,   and   6,73,325   mounds of sugar    were despatched from the same place.     In the succeeding five years, however, the amount  decreased  very  greatly ; the figures   for  Khatuali were not available, but the average export from Muzaffarnagar was 4,37,167 mounds in the case   of  wheat, although   it   is possible that an increased amount was sent from Khituali.    Sugar, on   the    other hand,  showed   a    decided  in­crease,    amounting   to nearly  a lakh of mounds.    It   thus  ap­peared    that   the average value of the export of wheat and sugar from Muzaffarnagar    was    considerably  more  than    twice    the amount  of the   expiring demand   of the   land-revenue, and not very much less than twice the total  amount of  the   new    assess­ment.    At the  same time it must be remembered that Muzaffarnagar is a favorite exporting station, and produce comes   to   it from both the Meerut and Saharanpur districts.    The trade, how­ever, is   very    rapidly on the increase. Between 1897 and 1901 the average export of wheat   from   Muzaffarnagar   was  7,00,780 maunds,   the  figures  of   the last two years being almost double those of the first half of the period.    From Khatauli the   amount of wheat exported averaged 53,310 maunds.    The other railway stations  of  the   district,   Rohana and Mansurpur, are only used or export purposes to a very small extent, and in this connection may be generally disregarded.

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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The weights and measures commonly in   use   in  the   district call for  little  remark.     Generally  speaking,  they are the same as those   employed    throughout   the   Duab,   the    only   difference occurring in the case of the scor.     Reference   has   already    been made to the difficulty of estimating the present, compared with the past, prices on account of the difference in weights, and in illustration of this we may quote the words of Mr. Thornton, written in 1841, who says that the seers used by him weigh 90 cross-milled Farrukhabad rupees, the maximum weight of which is declared by regulation III of 1806 to be 173 grains troy and the minimum weight is 171.198 grains troy." The seer in common use in Shamli and Muzaffarnagar is 88 Government rupees in weight or 92 old Farrukhabad rupees, whereas the standard seer weighs 80 tolas of 180 troy grains each. Thus we see that neither the seer used by Mr. Thornton nor that used by Mr. Martin for Muzaffarnagar and Mr. Colvin in Shamli agree even approximately with the standard seer. The old heavy seer of Mr. Thornton seems to have disappeared from the district, while the common local seer still weighs 88 tolas of 180 grains each.

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WAGES

With the rise in prices the wages of artisans in this district have also risen, but not in a proportionate degree. At least, there appears to have been a very great general rise between the mutiny and 1875, but since that date the wages seem to be fairly stationary. Thus, for instance, the wages of potters rose from Rs. 2-14-0 in 1859 to Rs. 4-14-0 in 1867, the rise being steadily maintained throughout the intervening period. At the present date, however, potters receive wages varying from Rs. 7-8-0 to Rs. 9-8-0 a month, which is practically the same as the wages earned by them in 1875. The same rise appears to have hap­pened in other trades. General laborers in 1858 received Rs. 3 a month; this rose gradually to Rs. 4-12-0 in 1867 and to Rs. 5 in 1875, which is exactly the same rate as that which prevails to-day. Tailors, who in 1859 were paid Rs. 4-12-0 a month, had risen to Rs. 6-4-0 in 1867, and now receive about Rs. 10, which also agrees with the figures of 1875. The rates given in the old settlement report for the period 1858 to 1867, however, are those which prevailed in the rural portion of the district, and therefore should not be strictly compared with the rates at the various tahsil headquarters, but still it is evident that the wages have risen very greatly, for in 1858 farm laborers received only Re. 1-14-0 a month, whereas in 1901 the general rate varied from Rs. 6 to Rs. 7. At present blacksmith and carpenters receive a wage varying from Rs. 10 to Rs. 12 a month; Thatcher from Rs. 5 to Rs. 6; and bricklayers from Rs. 11 to Rs. 15.

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DUES

A note written in 1825 with reference to this district states that it was then the regular practice for all landholders to collect dues from the people residing on their estates. These dues amounted to one rupee in the case of each loom, and each laborer's house; Rs. 2 on each dyer's, cotton printer's and shepherd's house and on each oil-mill; Rs 3 on each goldsmith's house, and thirty-two pairs of shoes from each shoemaker.    A    due   was also taken from grain-parchers and on the occasion of marriages. It is said that this practice was still prevalent in 1875, but thecustom has since disappeared on many estates. These dues areof course not recognized by law, and consequently the practice haslargely dropped out owing to resistance on the part of the people.

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INTEREST

The general rates of interest prevailing in this district are practically the same as those, which we find in the other districts of the division, and call for little comment. In the old settle­ment report attention was drawn to the excessive rates of interest charged by the small moneylenders in case of loans for agricul­tural purposes. It is never fair, however, to form a general idea of the current rates of interest from the rates charged in the case of these petty loans, for the amounts are never very large, while the risk incurred is always great, and what security there is depends wholly on the nature of the season. At the sametime, the rates are of course high when judged by a European standard, and the cultivators themselves frequently complain of the excessive exactions of the moneylenders, forgetting that without their aid they would be reduced to great straits. There is a proverb in this district to the effect that cultivation is gener­ally synonymous with indebtedness, the origin of this being that almost every cultivator, except he be a Jat, has to borrow money to stock his farm. In such cases cent percent, is not unknown, 72 percent, is by no means rare, and 50 per cent is common enough. It must be remembered, however, that such loans seldom run for long periods, and ordinarily the rate of interest is calculated monthly. Still the lowest rate in such loans is 15 per cent, and it appears that money is never lent on less than 24 per cent., except on the bast security. The money­lenders in this district are chiefly Bohras, who are very notorious usurers; they have a general habit of adding on 25 per cent, at the commencement of each transaction. For example, if a man borrows Rs. 20 from a Bohra, he is obliged to allow the moneylender to put down Rs. 25 against him in the bond.

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RAILWAYS

The main line of communication in the district is the North-Western State Railway from Delhi to Saharanpur, which traverses the central portion from south to north, passing a short distance to the east of the towns of Khatauli and Muzaffarnagar. This railway was opened in 1869 under the name of Sindh, Delhi and Panjab Railway. It enters the district at the village of Titaura in the south of pargana Khatauli, and after traversing the two parganas of Khatauli and Muzaffarnagar enters the Deoband pargana of Saharanpur at the village of Rohana. There are four stations in this district, at Khatauli, Mansurpur, Muzaffarnagar and Rohana, Mansurpur and Rohana being com­paratively recent additions. The Mansurpur railway station lies about two miles to the west of the village of that name, while the station at Rohana is actually situated in the village of Baheri in pargana Charthawal, about two miles to the south-west of Rohana. The line crosses the western Kali Nadi by a, bridge at Rampur, four miles north of the district headquarters.

The Qudh and Rohilkhand Railway from Lucknow to Saharanpur can hardly be said to affect this district, although it runs for two or three miled across the extreme north-eastern corner of the Gordhanpur pargana. There is no station within this district, the nearest being Balawali in Bijnor, close to the bridge over the Ganges. There is a station at Raisi, a few miles from Gordhanpur, in pargana Jawalapur of the Saharanpur dis­trict, but such a remote tract as Gordhanpur has no trade, and the railway is consequently of little importance.

The long projected light railway from Shahdra to Sahdranpur will shortly become a fait accompli. The line will follow roughly the course  taken by the road running past Kaudhla to Shamli and on to Thana Bhawan and Jalalabad. It is certain to have a great effect on the development of the western portion of the district, while it will also revive the decaying marts of Shamli and Jalalabad. The contract for the construction of the railway has been given to Sir T.A.Martin and Co., Engineers, and the line will be of a 2 feet 6 inches gauge.

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METALLED ROADS

The metalled roads of the district are divided into two classes, provincial and local, the former being under the charge of the Public Works Department, and the latter being managed by the District Board. There are only two provincial roads in the district, and of these the chief is the first class metalled road from Delhi and Meerut to Roorkce and Landaur. It has a total length of 34 miles 7 furlongs in this district, and is maintained at an annual cost of Rs. 16,860. It enters the district from Meerut, running to the west of and parallel to the railway. It passes through the town of Khatauli and then continues north­wards through Bhainsi and Begharazpur to Muzaffarnagar. North of headquarters it takes a bend to the right, crossing the railway at the 37th milestone from Meerut, and then passing through Sisauna, Chhapar, Barla and Pur, it enters the Manglaur pargana of the Saharanpur district, a short distance north of the town of Pur. Although its importance has greatly diminished since the opening of the railway, the road still supports a considerable traffic. The remaining provincial road is the small feeder road leading from the Meerut road to the railway station at Khatauli. It has a total length of 2-1/2 furlongs.

The local metalled roads are again divided into two classes, the one comprising those that are bridged and drained throughout, and the remainder being partially bridged and drained. Under the first head there are only two roads, that from Shamli to Kairana, and the road from Muzaffirnagar to the railway station. The roads represent the second class from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli and a portion of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor. Of these, the roads from Muzaffarnagar to shamli and from Shamli to Kairana are practically one. The length of the first portion is 24 miles and of the second seven miles; the whole is maintained at an annual cost of Rs. 23,100. Starting from Muzaffarnagar the road crosses the Kali Nadi by a masonry bridge of three arches, each having a span of 54 feet. A short distance further on a spill channel of the same river is crossed by an iron girder bridge In the 11th mile of its course an iron girder bridge of five spans of 84 feet each carries the road across the Hindan; this bridge was completed in 1894 at a cost of Rs. 82,905. The Kirsani river is crossed at Banat in the twenty-first mile by a girder buckle-plate bridge, about three miles from Shamli. The continuation of this road from Shamli to Kairana is of more recent origin. There are no large bridges on this line, and the road calls for no further comment. From the Kairana to Mavi ferry on the Jumna the road is of the second class and is unmetalled.

The road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor is now metalled for the first eleven miles of its length, as far as the village of Bhopa on the Ganges canal. From Bhopa it continues due east as a second class road for a distance of 13 miles, passing the village of Illahabas at the 18th miles of its course. It crosses the Ganges by a ferry at Matwali ghat, which is managed from the Bijnor dis­trict. This ferry lies in the village of Akikheri and also goes by the name of Rauli ghat; it consists of a bridge of boats for the greater part of the year, but during the rains boats have to be used. There is an encamping-ground on this road at Illahabas.

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THE UNMETALLED ROADS, Second CLASS

The unmetalled roads of the district are divided into three classes, officially known as second class roads, partially bridged and drained ; fifth class roads, cleared, partially bridged and drained; and sixth class roads, which are cleared only. Among the second-class roads one of the most important is that from Khatauli to Jansath; it is proposed to raise this to the first class, and one mile out of a total length of eight miles has already been metalled. This road continues in the opposite direction from Khatauli westwards to Budhdna and thence to Kandhla, a total distance of 29 miles. It crosses the western Kdli Nadi by a ferry at Anchauli; there is another ferry over the Hindan close to Budhana, and a third at Rajpur over the Kirsani between Budhana and Kandhla. This road is of the second class through­out. The longest second-class road in the district is that from Muzaffarnagar to Dharampur ghat on the Ganges, a total distance of 31 miles. It crosses the railway in its second mile and has a fine avenue of trees for four miles. The fifth mile runs through Sandhills and is heavy. The road crosses the Ganges canal at Nagla Mubarak and thence passes through Kawal and Jansath. From Jansath it runs to Miranpur after crossing the Anupshahr canal near Sambalhera. At Miranpur the road branches, one line bending north-east to Dharampur and the other continuing straight on to Mawana in Meerut. At Dharampur that joins the road from Meerut to Bijnor. The Ganges is crossed by a bridge-of-boats, which is replaced by a ferry during the rains and is managed from the Bijnor side; the ferry is known variously as Dharampur or Jalalpur, the latter being a village in the Bijnor district.

Another second class road runs from Muzaffarnagar to Budhana, leaving the metalled road to Shamli at the second mile and joining the road from Khatauli to Budhana close to the ferry over the Hindan; this road traverses the parganas of Baghra and Shikarpur and passes through the small town of Shahpur in the latter pargana. The road from Muzafiarnagar to Saharanpur leaves the Roorkeo road a short distance north of the town and, runs parallel to the railway. It has a fine avenue of trees along its entire length, and at the fifth mile crosses the Kali Nadi near the village of Rampur. A short feeder road runs from this road to the Rohana railway station.

The remaining second class roads of the district comprise the following: —The road from Saharanpur and Rampur to Shamli, which runs through the towns of Jalalabad and Thana Bhawan to Banat, where it joins the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar; it has a total length of fourteen miles two furlongs in this district. From Pur on the metalled road to Roorkee a second class road ruos across the khadir of Gordhanpur crossing the Ganges canal by the bridge at Dhamat. From Gordhanpur another similar road runs southwest to Alampur, from which point it becomes a rnere cart-track continuing to Tughlaqpur on the Ganges canal. From Hashtmoli, however, a village close to Alampur, a second class road runs to Sikri and  Bhukarheri. The only other second class road is that from Bidauli to the police station at Chausana, with a length of seven miles six furlongs.

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FIFTH CLASS ROAD

Of he fifth class   roads   -the  most   important   is  that  from Meerut to Shamli and Karnal in Punjab . It has a total length of 28 miles in this district and is maintained at   Rs. 10 per mile. It crosses the road from Budhana to Kandhla about two miles west of Budhana, and, then passing through Shamli, Jhinjhana and Bidauli, crosses the Jumna by a bridge-of-boats near the village of Andhera, the ferry being managed by the Panjab authorities. The only bridge on this road is that over the Kirsani. The road from Sahdranpur to Shamli con­tinues south as a fifth class road to Kandhla and Baghpat in Meerut. Similar roads run from Muzaffarnagar to Thana Bhawan and to Jauli on the Ganges canal; the former passes through Charthawal and then crossing the Hindan by a ferry at the village of Arnaich joins the Saharanpur-Shamli road, a short distance north of Thana Bhawan; the latter crosses the Ganges by a bridge at Jauli, and then continues in the same direction towards the Ganges. Other roads of the same class are the Deoband and Bijnor road which crosses the Trunk Road at Barla, and then passing through Basehra and Bhukarheri joins the road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor at Ilahabas; the road from Khatauli to Mirzapur; from Kandhla to Kairana; from Pur to Sikri and Bhukarheri; and the circular road that surrounds the civil station of Muzaffarnagar. The last mentioned road runs from Sujra on the Meerut road round the station to join the Roorkee road a mile north of Muzaffarnagar. Part of this road is of the second class, and five furlongs of its length are metalled.

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THE SIXTH CLASS ROADS

The sixth class roads are three in number. One leads from Kairana to Jhinjhana and on to Thana Bhawan. A second runs from Gordhanpur to Manglaur and Roorkee, and a third connects Tughlaqpur with Barla. Besides these, communication is afforded between almost every village by the small village roads which are maintained by the zamindars. The nature of these varies greatly: in some cases they are no better than rough cart tracks, but the roads depend entirely on the soil. In many places the canals and their distributaries form a serious hindrance to cross-country communication. This is especially the case in the northen part of the Jumna canal tract; even the dhak jungle and water-courses of Bidauli are less formidable than the nu­merous obstacles to traffic caused by the old and new branches of the canal and its many drainage cuts and rajbahas.

 

The inferiority and   backwardness measure be attributed to its inaccessibility. In striking contrast to this is the country lying near Budhana, where neither canal irrigation nor heavy assessment, have tempted the people to en­croach on the roads, which are wide and excellent.

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FERRIES

Reference   has    already   been  made   to  the   most   important ferries in this   district   in connection   with   the   roads  on  which they lie.     With a few   exceptions they   are all   managed   by the district boards of the adjoining districts: Bijnor  in   the case of the ferries on the Ganges,  and   Karnal in   the case of the Jumna ferries.    The    exceptions are confined   to   those ferries   within the    district over the   Hindan,   Kali Nadi    and   Kirsani  rivers. The Hindan ferries are those at Arnaich and    Budhana.    There is only one ferry on the Kali Nadi at   Anchauli on the road from Khatauli to Budhdna.     The ferries over the Kirsani are   Rajpur ghat  on   the   road  from Budhdna   to Kandhla,    Thana  Bhawan ghat on the road from that town to Muzaffarnagar, and Jalalabad ghat on the small road from Jalalabad to Lohari. All of these are public ferries and are leased annually by auction.    In addition to these, there is a small ferry over the Solani near Sikri, where a boat is provided   by  the  district   board and a boatman main­tained at the rate of Rs. 3 a month.    The private ferries are of little importance.    There are   two over the   Kali Nadi at Maulaheri in the Muzaffarnagar pargana and at Morkuka in pargana Shikarpur on   a  small  road  leading  from  Shahpur to Khatauli. The only remaining ferry is    that over the Hindan at the village of Shikarpur.

The public ferries which are managed    from outside the dis­trict  comprise  three over   the   Ganges and two on  the Jumna. The boat-bridges at Matwali or Rauli  ghat and  at  Dharampur have already been mentioned.     The third ferry over  the   Ganges is that known  as Balawala  ghat   in   tho  extreme north-east   of Gordhanpur pargana, close to the railway bridge of the Oudh and Robilkhand   Railway.   The two ferries over the Jumna are tem­porary boat-bridges at Mavi near Kairana on the road to Panipat and at Andhera near Bidauli on the road from Shamli to Karnal.

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BUNGLOWS

 The Public Works    Department inspection bungalows in this district comprise those at Muzaffarnagar, Khatauli and Pur on the main road from Meerut to Roorkee. They are all provincial bungalows, as are also the encamping-grounds at each of these places. The only other inspection bungalow is at Banat on the road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli. Othere encamping-grounds are at  Jaula in pargana Budhana, Shamli and Bidauli on the road from Meerut to Karnal ; at Kandhla on the road from Shamli to Dehli; at Ilahabas on the route from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor ; and at Basehra on the road from Deoband to Illahabas and Bijnor.

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WATERWAYS

In this    connection   mention    should   also  be   made  of     the rivers   and   canals   as    means   of  communication.      The   Ganges canal is navigable   throughout    its   length in   this   district.     A number of boats ply on    the canal between Hardwar and Meerut: carrying grain and   other   cargos.     Tae   chief trade   centre   in this district on the  canal   is  Khatauli, but no figures are avail­able to show the actual amount of traffic that passes through this district, the  returns  only  showing    the total tonnage carried on the whole   canal.    On    the   eastern   Jumna canal     there is no re­gular   navigation, but   one   or two   canal   boats    ply locally for short distances, carrying wood and other materials.     Navigation on the Ganges has been to a large   extent stopped by the con­struction of the   Narora dam   in Bulandshahr.    A   few countrv boats ply on the river between Anupashahr and Hardwar, but tho traffic is    of little importance.     The same applies to the Jumna, where through communication   has    been interrupted by the con­struction of the   Agra    canal headworks   below   Debli.    What traffic there is, is  confined    to   the  rafting of timber and the navigation of a few boats of small burthen from the Dun.

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END OF CHAPTER - II

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