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DISTRICT MUZAFFARNAGAR GAZEETEER CHAPTER VI DIRECTORY

AILAM, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana.

HARSAULI, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

MORNA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

BABRI, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana.

HUSAINPUR, Pargana and Tahsil Budhana

MUZAFFARNAGAR, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

BAGHONWALI, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.

HUSAINPUR, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil J ansath

BAGHRA, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.

ILAHABAS, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

MUZAFFARNAGAR Tahsil

BAGHRA Pargana, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.

JALALABAD, Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairana

MUZAFFARNAGAR Tahsil

BALWA, Pargana SHAMLI, Tahsil Kairana.

HUSAINPUR, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil Jansath

NAULA, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath

BANAT, Pargana SHAMLI, Tahsil KAIRANA.

ILAHABAS, Pargana, Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

PHUGANA, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil budhana

BARAL, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana.

JALALABAD, Pargana Thana Bervwan, Tahsil Kairana

PINDAURA, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana

BARALSI, Pargana Chartuawal, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.

JANSATH, Pargana Jauli Jansath, Tahsil Jansath

PINNA, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

BARAUDA, Pargana and Tahsil Budhdna.

JANSATH Tahsil

PUR, Pargana Pur Chhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

BARLA, Pargana PUR Chhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.

PURBALIAN, Pargana Shikarpur, Tahsil Budhana

JAULA, Pargana and Tahsil Budhana

PUR CHHAPAR Pargana, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

BASHERA, Pragana PUR CHHAPAR, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

JAULI, Pargana Jauli Jansath; Tahsil JAnsath

RASULPUR SARAI, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath

BELRA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

JAULI JANSATH Pargana, Tahsil Jansath

ROHANA, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

BHAINSI, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath

JHINJHANA, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana

SAMBALHERA, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil Jansath

BHAINSWAL, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana

JHINJHANA Pargana, Tahsil Kairana

SHAHPUR, Pargana ShikArfur, Tahsil BUDHANA

BHAJU, Pargana Shamlt, Tahsil Kairana

KAIKANA, Pargancuand Tahsil Kairana

SHAMLI, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil KAIRANA

BHAUNRA, Pargana ShikArpuii, Tahsil Budhana

KAIRANA Pargana, Tahsil Kairana

SHAMLI Pargana, Tahsil Kairana

BHOPA, Parr/ana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

KAIRANA Tahsil

SHIKAPUR, Pargana Shikarpur Tahsil Budhana

BHUKARHERI, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

KAKRA, Pargana Shikarpur, Tahsil BUDHANA

SHORON, Pargana Shikarpur, Tahsil Budhana

BHUKARHERI Pargana, Tahsil Jansath.

KAKRAULI, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil JANSATH

BHUMA, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhbra, Tahsil Jansath.

KANAUNI pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

SISAULI, Pargana Saikarpur, Tahsil Budhana

BHUMA SAMBALHERA Pargana, Tahsil Jansath

KANDHLA pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana

SUJRU, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

BHURA, Pargana and Tahsil Kairana

KANDHLA Pargana, Tahsil Budhana

TEORA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

BIDAULI, Pargana Bidauli, Tahsil Kairana

KAWAL, Pargana. Jauli Jansath, Tahsil Jansath

THANA BHAWAN, Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairana

BIDAULI Pargana, Tahsil Kairana

KHANDRAULI, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana

THANA BHAWAN Pargana, Tahsil Kairana

BUDHANA, Pargana and Tahsil BUDHANA

KHARAR, Pargana and Tahsil Budhana

TISAN, Pargana Jauli-Jansath, Tahsil Jansath

BUDHANA Pargana, Tahsil BUDHANA

KHATAULI, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath

TISSA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath

BUDHANA Tahsil

KHATAULI Pargana, Tahsil Jansath

CHAUSANA, Pargana Bidauli, Tahsil Kairana

KHUDDA, Pargana Pur Chhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

CHHAPAR, Pargana Pur Chhapak, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

KOTESRA, Pargana Charthawal, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

TUGHLAQPUR, Pargana Purchhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar

GANGERU, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana

KUDANA, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana

UN, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana

GARHI, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana.

LANK, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana

 

LISARH, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana

 

LOHARI, Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairna

 

GULA, Pargana ShikArpur, Tahsil Budhana

MANSURPUR, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath

 

HARHARI Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairana

MlRANPUR, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil Jansath

 

AILAM, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana.

A large village in the south of the pargana between the Kirsani river and the Eastern Jumna Canal on the unmetalled road from Shamli to Baghpat, at a distance of twelve miles from Shamli and thirty miles from Muzaffarnagar. The village con­sists of two parts known as patti kalan and patti khurd, both of which belong to the Jat zamindars. The village sites are rather low and a good deal of water collects here during the rains, but the land is fertile and the place bears an air of prosperity.
There is an upper primary school here and an aided school for girls, but nothing else of any importance in the village. Ailam forms one of the halting stages on the route from Dehli to Saharanpur, but there is no regular encamping-ground. The population at the last census numbered 3,796 persons, of whom 2,489 were Hindus, 430 Musalmans and 877 others, chiefly Jains, The village has-grown very largely of late years, for in 1865 there were only 2,700 inhabitants.

BABRI, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana.
A large village in the north-east corner of the pargana, a short distance north of the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli, at a distance of seventeen miles from the former and nine miles from Shamli. Close to the village on the west flow the Yarpur distributaries of the Jumna Canal. The village was originally set­tled by one Jogi Das, a Rajput, but at a later date it passed into the hands of Biluchi emigrants from Faridnagar in the Meerut district. The zamindars are now wholly non-resident, but Biluchis form part of the population, which in 1901 amounted to 2,43S persons, of whom 687 were Musalmans. The revenue of the village is assessed at Rs. 5300. There is a post office here, an upper primary school and a small bazaar in which markets are held on Mondays.

BAGH0NWALI, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
An old village on the east side of the main road from Muzaffarnagar to Roorkee, at a distance of about five miles from the district headquarters, It derives its name, from the groves which were planted here by the Garas, who founded the village when they left what was then the city of Sarwat. The groves are still in existence and the place is largely held by the descendants of the founders, who pay revenue of Rs. 2,150. The village lands are irrigated by the right main branch of the Ganges Canal. The population of the place at the last census numbered 2,724 persons, of whom 1,975 were Musalmans.

BAGHRA, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
The capital of the pargana is a large village on the south side of the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli, at a distance of eight miles from the district headquarters. To the north of the village there is a large area under groves through which the road runs. Baghra contains a post office and an upper prim­ary school; to the west of the village there is a canal bun­galow on the Deoband Canal. A small market is held here weekly on Wednesday. The village consists of fifteen mahals held in bhaiyachara, zamindari and pattidari tenures, and pays revenue of Rs. 6,182. A portion of the village is held under a revenue- free grant. The population at the last census numbered 4,935 persons, of whom 2,294 were Musalmans and 45 Jains and Aryas. There is a large Bania colony here.

BAGHRA Pargana, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
This is the south-western pargana of the tahsil, being bounded by Thana Bhawan and Shamli on the west and the Shikarpur pargana of the Budhdna tahsil on the south, To the north lies Charthawal and to l6te east Muzaffarnagar. The bulk of the pargana lies between the Hindan and Kali rivers, the former flowing southwards through the western portion and the latter running in the same direction a short distance beyond the eastern boundary. West of the hindan is a narrow strip of Khadir which broadens out in the north near the village of Jasoli; it is which broadens out in the north near the village of jasoli; it is as a rule inferior and ill cultivated. Beyond the Khadir there is a small stretch of broken ground and above this a level tract of rich land which has been brought into a high state of cultivation by the jat communities. In the northern part the cultivation falls off rapidly, but this is due more to the change from Jat to Rajput ownership than to any natural inferiority in the soil. On the eastern side of the Hindan the khadir is much more extensive, and in some places where it is protected from floods the cultivation is excellent, especially in the village of Titiivi. Beyond the sandy ridge that forms the high bank of the river lies a fairly level stretch of open country which extends as far as the Kali. It is only diversified by a small belt of sandy soil that appears in the south of pargana Charthawal and after traversing this pargana passes into the Budhdna tahsil. With this exception the soil is a good loam and the cultivation excellent. With the exception of two villages in the extreme south-east which are held by Tagas, the whole of the south and east of the pargana is cultivated by Jats. Formerly this tract was entirely dependent on wells for irrigation, but it is now sufficiently protected by the Deoband Canal which passes down the centre. The eastern portion of the pargana is watered from its distributaries, the Charthawal and Lohari rajbahas, while the extreme west is traversed by the Kalarpur rajbaha of the Jumna Canal.

The total area of the pargana is 56,719 acres, or 88 square miles. Of this 44,536 acres, or 78 per cent, were cultivated in 1901 a figure which shows a very large increase during recent years, for in 1848 the cultivated area amounted to 39,434 acres and to 42,347 acres in 1872. The irrigated area amounts to 48 per cent, of the cultivation, and of this two thirds are watered from the canal and the bulk of the remainder from the numerous masonry wells. The principal crops are wheat and gram in the rabi, and juar, sugarcane, maize and rice in the kharif, while 15.5 per cent, bears a double crop. As in the rest of the tahsil, wheat is the most important crop, occupying by far the largest area, Next in importance come juar and sugarcane, the former being more largely grown here than in any of other parganas of the tahsil. In formaer days the pargana was also liable to suffer greatly in time of droughts, and this was especially the case in the famine of 1860, but the danger has largely been oviated by the construction of the canal. The necessity for the Deoband Canal was .seen long ago, for Mr. Martin, the Settlement Officer in 1862, stated that the prosperity of the pargana could in 1.0 wav be assured until a scheme was devised for bringing water into to the Duab of the Hindan and Kali rivers. The pargana was assersed in 1841 by Mr. E. Thornton, who fixed the demand at Rs. 8G 161, which fell with the very high incidence of Rs. 2-3-0 per acre of cultivation. Owing to the depression that resulted from the disturbances of 1857 and the droughts of the following years it was found necessary to impose only a light assessment at the following settlement. The demand was reduced to Rs. 81,691 in 1S62, and at the revision by Mr. Cadell in 1870 the demand for the next twenty years was fixed at Rs. 82,391, with an incidence of Rs. 1-15-2 per acre of cultivation. The necessity for this reduction is well illustrated by the fact that between 1841 and 1861 over thirty per cent, of the entire area had changed hands, and only eighteen estates escaped change of some kind or other, while the average price obtained at private sales was less than double the annual revenue. When Mr. Miller began the settle­ment in 1891 the pargana was found to have undergone a marked change for the better. It was found possible to take an enhance­ment of 38'3 per cent., the revenue being fixed at Rs. 1, 20,423, with an incidence of Rs. 2-10-4 per acre of cultivation.
In 1872 the total population of Baghra pargana was 44,164 souls, and with the advance in prosperity the population has increased rapidly during the past thirty years. In 1881 the census returns gave a total of 50,039 persons, and 50,872 in 1891. At the last census the increase was far more marked, the total population being 57,486 persons, of whom 30,822 were males and 26.664 females. Of these 42,773 were Hindus, 14,176 Musalmans and 537 of other religious, Jains, Aryas and Sikhs. The pargana contains no town properly so called, but the number of large villages, the most important of which are Baghra, Jasoi, Harsauli, Barwala, Kanauni and Pinna, all of which have been separately described. Markets are held weekly at Baghra, Jasoi and Aminnagar.

The parghana is traversed from east to west by the metalled road leading from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli and Kairana, which crosses the Hindan by a bridge at Titavi. The east of the pargana is also served by the road from Muzaffarnagar to Budhdna, which gives access to the largo villages of Pinna, Kanauni, Barwdla and Harsauli. These are the only regular roads of the pargana, but there are many village cart-tracts connecting all the more important places; cross-country communication is rendered easy by the numerous bridges over the canal and its distributaries. There is a canal bungalow at Lalukhera on the Kalarpur rajbaha and also at Baghra on the Deoband Canal.
Baghra was known as a pargana in the days of Akbar and, if the story told by the qanungos is correct, from a very much more early date, for the records are said to date from 935 A.D., when Prithvi Raja, the King of Dehli, held possession of this tract. The name is said to be derived from one Raja Bag, but nothing is known of this personage. During the Moghal Empire Baghra formed part of the Suba of Dehli, and at a later date a large portion of it was included in the Sardhana jdgfr. There have been considerable alterations in the boundaries of the pargana, and numerous exchanges have been made at different times with Budhdna, Charthawal and Shikarpur. In 1810, Baghra had only 37 villages. In 1840 one village was received from Deoband and four from Thana Bhawan, while at the same time two villages were transferred to Deoband.

BALWA, Pargana SHAMLI, Tahsil Kairana.
A village lying at a distance of three miles south of Shamli on the right bank of a small tributary of the Kirsani known as the Sila Khala, and about a mile east of the road from Shamli to Kandhla close to the southern border of the pargana. The place is said to have been settled by Gujars of Kairana several centuries ago and is still held by people of the same caste, both Hindu and Musalman. It consists of 27 mahals, chiefly held in bhaiyachara tenure, and pays revenue of Ra. 3,354. The population in 1901 numbered 2,503 persons, of whom 723 were musalmans. There is a government primary school here.

BANAT, Pargana SHAMLI, Tahsil KAIRANA.

A large village on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli, at a distance of three miles north-east of the latter and 21 miles from Muzaffarnagar, on the right bank of the Kirsani which is here crossed by a bridge. Banat contains a post-office a road lnspection-bungalow and a school. A small bazar is held here weekly. The population at the last census numbered 3,590 persons, of whom 1,027 were Musalmans and 151 Aryas. The village is held in bhaiyachara tenure and pays revenue of Rs. 5,550. Banat for a long time was the capital of a pargana, which was amalgamated with the old tappa of Shamli to form a separate pargana after 1841. A small Musalman fair is held here on the 4th of Moharram in honour of Sheikh Imam Sahib of Jhinjhana.

BARAL, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana.

A considerable village on the extreme boundary of the district, some eight miles west of Budhana, It is a large and straggling place belonging to a body of Kachhwaha Thakurs, many of whom are in prosperous circumstances. The lands of the village are beyond the reach of the canal and well irrigation is difficult and expensive owing to the proximity of the Kirsani, which flows some two miles to the -west. The total revenue was assessed at the last settlement at Rs. 6,510. The population in 1901 numbered 2,843 persons, of whom 186 were Musalmans and 156 Jains and Aryas. There is a village school here and a small market. A certain amount of trade is carried on with Chaprauli in Meerut and also with Muzaffarnagar.

BARALSI, Pargana Chartuawal, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A village in the west of the pargana on the south side of the road leading from Muzaffarnagar and Charthawal to Thana Bhawan, at a distance of six miles from Charthawal and. thirteen miles from the district headquarters. A mile west of the village flows the Kalirpur rajbaha of the Jumna Canal and in the north of the village a drainage cut from the canal carries off the super­fluous moisture into a channel leading into the Hindan, which flows two miles to the east. The village is dirty and unhealthy. The population, which in 1865 numbered 1680 persons, had raised in 1901 to 2137 persons, of whom 88 were Musalmans and 15 Jains. The bulk of the populations are Pundir Thakurs, to whom the village belongs. The village lands consist of two pattis known as Baralsa and Baralsi, both held in bhaiyachara tenure and paying a revenue of Rs. 2,780. There is a Government primary school here, but nothing else of any importance in the village.

BARAUDA, Pargana and Tahsil Budhdna.

A village on the Meerut boundary, two miles west of the road from Shamli to Meerut, with which it is connected by an unmetalled road leading to Daha in the adjoining district, It lies in the area between the Hindan and the Krishna Nadi, and is consequently devoid of canal irrigation and is dependent on wells. The village belongs to a large body of resident Rdwahs, who are mostly of small status, and is assessed to revenue of Rs. 5,981. A considerable trade in grain and sugar is carried on with Muzaffarnagar. The population in 1901 numbered 2,754 souls, of whom 383 were Musalmans and 177 Jains. There is a Govern­ment school here.

BARLA, Pargana PUR Chhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A large village on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Pur and Roorkee, at a distance of twelve miles north-east of Muzaffarnagar and five miles from Pur. To the south of the village the road is crossed by an unmetalled road leading from Bijnor and Bhiukarheri to Deoband. The village lands are watered from the main distributary.of the Ganges Canal, which passes a short distance to the east of the villages, and by the Barhla rdjbaha. The population of the village in 1872 numbered 2,658 souls, which had risen at the last census to 3,582, of whom 754 were Musalmans and 89 Jains and Aryas. The bulk of the population are Tagas, both Hindu and Musalman. The village is divided into a great number of mahals and is assessed to revenue of Rs. 6,895. Barla contains a canal bungalow and an upper primary school. The former fiscal history of the village is given in the selections from the Revenue Records of the North-Western Provinces, 1822-1833, page 85. The village then was divided into five patties and held by Tagas, some of whom were Musalmans. There is nothing of any special interest in the account of Barla, the village having been selected as a typical one to illustrate the working of the system of revenue administration then in existence. There were then lambardars at the head of each patti, who received a malikana of five per cent, on the revenue. These lambardars appear to have held in farm, a system instituted by Raja Ram Dayal of Landhaura, who held Barla as a portion of this estate till his death in 1813. Subsequently, after the break up of the Landhaura estate, the village appears to have belonged to Saiyids, as is evident from the Boards Records of the 10th January, 1825, Nos. 24. On that occasion the Collector of Muzaffarnagar, Mr. Boulderson, reported to the Board that he had ejected the former, one Mohsin Ali, on acc6unt of- his exactions from the head/men and cultivators. Mohsin Ali had received possesion of the estate from the zamindars, Sarfaraz Ali, Hamid Ali and Ghulam Husain, from whom the engagement for the revenue had been taken. Mr. Boulderson engaged directly with the headmen for the year 1825 with the condition that the zamindars might take possession so long as the former was excluded. Mohsin Ali petitioned the Board, with the result than an order was issued declaring his ejection illegal. At the following settlement, how­ever, the engagement was made directly with the lambardars.

BARWALA, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.    

A large village lying at a distance of about six miles south­west of Muzaffarnagar nears the unmetalled road leading to Budhdna. Between the village and the road runs the Charthawal Distributary of the Deoband Canal. The village is said to derive its name from the Bargad trees planted by the original settlers, Jats, who came from Sisauli in Budhana. Some of these were subsequently converted to Islam, but the majorities are still Hindus. The village is divided into 18 mahals held in pattidari tenure and paying revenue of Rs. 8,219, and contained in 1901 a population of 3,184 persons, of whom 739 were Musalmans. An aided school is maintained here.

BASHERA, Pragana PUR CHHAPAR, Tahsil MUZAFFARNAGAR
A large village lying on the south side of the unmettaled road from Bijnor and Bhukarheri to Deoband, at a distance of six miles south of Pur and eleven miles in a direct lino from Muzaffarnagar. Close to the village on the west flows the Basehra distributary of the Ganges Canal, tbe main canal lying about two miles to the east. Between the village and canal is the left branch of the Basehra rajbaha, so that the village lands, which are very extensive, having an area of no less than 7,330 acres, are well provided with means of irrigation. A small portion of the village actually extends beyond the main canal into the khadir of the Soldni. There are two mahals, one known as the Bangar arid the other as the Khadir, held in imperfect pattidari and bhaiyachara tenures respectively, and assessed to total revenue of Rs. 9,235. The proprietary and cultivating bodies are mixed, but the bulk of the land belongs to Jats. Formerly it was held by the Barha Saiyids, but it passed from their hands during'the days of Pathan supremacy. It subsequently formed part of the estate of Gujars of Landhaura, but in 1813 the settlement was made with the cultivators, although these again to some extent broke down under their new responsibilities and their shares passed into the hands of others. The village itself bears a pros­perous appearance and possesses a small bazar in which markets are held weekly on Tuesdays. There is a post-office here, a village school, and the ruins of a small fort. Bashera is a stage on the route from Moradabad to Umballa, but there is no regular encamping ground. The population, which in 1865 numbered 3,839 souls, had risen in 1901 to a total of 4,497 persons, of whom 3,327 were Hindus, 1,076 Musalmans and 94 Jains, the last- named being Saraogi money-lenders.

BELRA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath.:- A village on the left bank of the main Ganges Canal about two miles north of Bhopa. There is a bridge over the canal here arid a canal inspection bungalow at the 44th mile from the head-works. The place is of no great importance save as possessing a bazar, in which markets are held weekly on Tuesdays, and an upper primary school. The population at the last census of 1901 numbered 1809 persons of whom 402 were Musalmans. A small fair, known as that of Zabir Diwan, is held annually at Belra during the month of Sawan: it is attended by about a thousand villagers from the neighbouring villages.

BHAINSI, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath.
A village on the west side of the metalled road from Muzaf­farnagar to Meerut, at a distance of two miles north of Khatauli and twelve miles from Muzaffarnagar. A short distance south of the village the Ganges Canal is crossed by a road and also by the North-Western Railway. The village is in a prosperous condition, and has ample means of irrigation from the canal. It belongs to Nawabzada Muhammad Umardaraz Ali Khan of Karnal and is cultivated by a well-to-do body of Hindu Jats with occupancy rights. The chief pruducts are wheat and sugar, and the revenue now stands at Rs. 4,194. Bhainsi had in 1901 a population of 2,639 persons, of whom 370 were Musalmans and 112 Jains. There is a first-class canal bungalow here and a Government primary school.

BHAINSWAL, Pargana ShXmli, Tahsil Kairana.

A large village in the north-west corner of the pargana situated on the right bank of the Eastern Jumna Canal, at a distance of five miles from Shamli and twenty-seven miles from Muzaffarnagar. It lies off the main road, but is connected by rough tracks with Shamli on the south and Garhi Bhai Khan on the north. Between the village site and the canal runs the Kasorwa rajbaha, which leaves the canal about u mile north of the village. The canal is crossed by two bridges half a mile distant from one another, the site is very low, the water in the wells being found at a depth of only eight feet from the surface. Consequently in the rains the entire village is nearly surrounded by water and the population suffers greatly from fever and its consequences. In order to carry off the superfluous drainage fort the Jhanderi, a cub has been made which leads to the Katha close to Jhinjhana. The village contains a number of brick-built houses, chiefly owned by Jats, Brahmans and Banias. There is a post-office here and a government primary school. The only trade in the place is sugar-refining. The population, which in 1865 numbered 3120 souls, and has remained stationary for many years and at the last census there were 3,130 inhabitants, of whom 513 were Musal­mans and 26 Jains. Jats form the bulk of the Hindu population and are the proprietors of the village, holding it in a single bhaiyachra mahfil assessed to revenue of Rs. 7,500. The village lands are extensive, covering an area of 3,534 acres, of which two-thirds are cultivated. In the centre of the village there is a mound of earth, about thirty feet high, on which a fair is held annually. It is said to contain the.’grave of Pir Ghaib, the founder of the place, who, according to the tradition, used to house his cattle here when all the country around was covered- with water.
BHAJU, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana.
A village on the eastern border of the pargana, a short distance east of the Yarpur distributary’s of the Jumna Canal, at a distance of about seven miles east of Shamli and twenty miles by road from Muzaffarnagar. It is said to have been originally held by Kambohs and then by Sanis, but they were replaced some three centuries ago by Jats of the Kalal and Goba gots, the latter being still the chief proprietors. A small market is held here weekly on Saturdays. 'There is an aided school here, but nothing else of any importance in the village. The population at the last census numbered 2,563 persons, of whom 297 were Musalmans. The village is held as a single bhaiyachara mahal and pays revenue of Rs. 9,300.

BHAUNRA, Pargana ShikArpuii, Tahsil Budhana.
A large village nears the western border of the pargana, at a distance of about seven miles north-west of Budhana between Sisauli and Kharar. It lies on the right bank of tho KalSrpur distributary of the Eastern Jumna Canal, and though the soil and situation are inferior, the village is in a flourishing condition. The proprietors are numerous, being mainly Jats, with a large and flourishing section of Banias, who have extensive trade connections. The revenue now amounts to Rs. 8052. there are two adjoining villages of this name, known as Bhanura Khurd, the latter adjoining Sisauli on the south, Bhannra kalan had in 1001 a population of 3,147 persons, of whom 3G7 were Musalmiins, while the total population of Bhaunra khurd was 1,406. There is an upper primary school in Bhaunra kalan.

BHOPA, Parghana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath.
A village on the left bank of the main Ganges Canal situated close to the point where it is crossed by the main road from Muzaffarnagar to Meerut, which is metalled from Muzaffarnagar up to this place. It lies at a distance of eleven miles from the district headquarters and forty-seven miles from the head-work of the canal. The village contains a police station, a post-office, i cattle pound and a Government primary school. There is a small bazar here of some local importance, in which the chief articles of commerce are wheat and sugar. The village is assessed to revenue of Rs. 3,686 and belongs to Mahajans of Jansath and Landhaura, who are in fairly prosperous circumstances. The tenants are chiefly Jats, Saiyids and Sanis, the total popula­tion in 1901 being 2,091 persons, of whom 598 were Musalmans.

BHUKARHERI, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath.

The capital of the pargana is a large village on the north side of the road leading from Bijnor to Deoband at the point where the branch road takes off to Sikri and Pur, at a distance of four miles from Bhopa and fifteen miles from Muzaffarnagar. To the east of the village, just above the edge of the Soldni khadir, flows the Bhukarheri distributary of the Ganges Canal, which is crossed by a bridge about a mile north-east of the village. On the west runs the left main distributary of the same canal. The village has a small brick-paved bazar and a few good brick-built houses. Markets are held here weekly on Mondays, but there is no external trade. Bhukarheri possesses a post-office and an upper primary school. The population, which in 1865 numbered 4649 souls, had raised in 1901 to 6316 persons, of whom 1509 were musalmans. The bulk of the inhabitants are Jats, to whom the village belongs. These jats have been settled here for a long time and attained considerable power during the days of Pathan supremacy. The village is held as a single bhaiyachara mahal, and pays revenue of Rs. 8,610. There is a very old tomb here of a Hindu Jogi; it is a place of worship for both Hindus and Musalmans, as the former consider it to be the tomb of Baba Gharib Nath, and the latter that of Bala Gharib Shah. A considerable fair is held here, attended by some 3,000 people on the 15th day of the month Sawan.

BHUKARHERI Pargana, Tahsil Jansath.
This is the most northern pargana of the tahsil, and is bounded on the north by the parganas of Gordhanpur and Pur Chha- par, on the south by Sambalhera, on the west by Jansath and Muzaffarnagar and on the east by the river Ganges which separates it from the district of Bijnor. The bulk of the par­gana consists of a high sandy soil traversed from north to south by seven distinct lines of sand hills, the most marked of which lie to the west and are a continuation of those in Pur Chhapar. Towards the east the lines of sand are for the most part tolerably level, and are only left unirrigated on account of the inferiority of the soil. On either side of the sand the land slopes down to shallow depressions at the bottom of which the soil is a good level loam. The eastern portion of the pargana consists of the khadir of the Ganges, the western boundary of which is formed by the Soldni river, - which flows immediately under the high bank. Between this and the main stream is the Banganga, which represents merely an old bed of the Ganges. The khadir is wider in the south than in the north, and in its general aspect resembles that of Bhuma Sambalhera, being usually hard and dry without any extensive swamps. A large part of the khadir is beyond the reach of fluvial action, but owing to the general precariousness of this tract it is chiefly used as a pasture land. The high bank above the Solani is broken by innumerable ravines, which in the centre of the pargana approach within a short distance of the Ganges, and thus divide the khadir of the pargana into two portions.The main ganges canal passes through the western half of the parganas and gives off several distributaries, the chief of which are the Bashera rajbaha on the west, the bhopa rajbaha and the left main distributary in the centre, and the Bhukarheri distributary on the east. The upland portions of the pargana arc therefore well provided with means of irrigation, aid with the exception of four villages in the east and one in the extreme west there is no village in which less than 25 percent, of the whole cultivated area is not watered from ;he canal. Well irrigation is almost unknown and there are only four masonry wells used for this purpose in the whole par­gana, the total area thus irrigated being less 'than a hundred acres.
The total area of the pargana amounts to 77,557 acres, or 121 square miles. Of this 46,191 acres, or 59_ per cent., were cultivated in 1901, and of these 19,859 acres were irrigated. There has been a slight decrease in cultivation during recent years, for at the settlement of 1892 as much as 49,143 acres were under the plough. Of the remainder 14,184 acres are returned as barren. The principal crops of the pargana are wheat, gram and barley in the rabi, and Bajra and sugarcane, juar and rice in the kharif, The standard of cultivation is naturally poorer hero than in the southern parganas of the tahsil, owing to the prevalence of sand, and for this reason also the crops grown are of a somewhat inferior class. The most valuable are sugarcane and a variety of rice known as munji. This rice is followed by cane and cotton in rotation, and in the cold weather by wheat and gram, so that it clearly occupies the best land. In spite of the slight decline in cultivation during the past few years, the pargana has made enormous progress since 1841, for according to the settlement returns of that year the cultivated area was only 37,948 acres, of which nearly the whole was unirrigated. The revenue in 1841, as assessed by Mr. Elliot, amounted to Rs. 53,170. In 1874 it had,risen tolls. 77,806 and at the last settlement of 1891 to Rs. 87,142, the enhancement on the expiring settlement being 15-3 per cent, and the present incidence per acre of cultivation being Rs. 1-14-8, The pargana contains 64 villages which at the settlement of 1892 were divided into, 136 mahals, of which ninety-eight were held in single and joint zamindari, thirty five in pattidari, and three in bhaiyachara tenure. the chief proprietors are the saiyids followed by Banias, Sheikhs, Jats and Bohras. The chief cultivating classes are Jats, Jhojhas and Gujars in the uplands, and Chauhans in the khadir. J5ts are chiefly found in the north and centre of the pargana, the Jhojhas in the south, and the Gujars in the east along the edge of the khadir. The population of the pargana at the last census numbered 53,618 persons, of whom 29,001 were males and 24,617 females. Of these Hindus numbered 38,425, Musalmans 14,957, while 234 were returned as of other religions, almost all Jains, most of who are found in the villages of Tissa and Kakrauli. There has been a very large increase in population during the past forty years, for in 1872 the total number of inhabitants was 39,573, which had risen in 1881 to 46,497. There is no town in the pargana, but a number of large villages, the chief of which are Bhukarheri, Kakrauli, Tissa, Sikri and Teora, all of which are separately mentioned. Small markets are held regularly at each of these places, and also at Bhopa, Belra and Morna, on which separate articles will be .found, and at Bera Sadat.
The pargana possesses neither railway nor metalled roads, with the exception of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor, which is metalled as far as Bhopa. This road runs through the centre of the pargana and crosses the Ganges by a bridge of boats at Matwali ghat. At Ilahabas on the edge of the khadir a branch runs to Bhukarheri and on to Deoband, crossing the canal by a bridge at Belra. From Bhukarheri a road runs to Pur passing through Sikri, whence a small road leads north across the khadir to Gordhanpur. The southern part of the pargana is traversed by an extension of the road from Muzaffar­nagar to Jauli. The pargana was constituted as such in the days of Akbar, and up to-1842 consisted of forty villages. In that year nine villages were added from the neighboring parganas and fourteen from Bijnor, owing to the changes in the course of the Ganges; subsequently five other villages were added in the same manner. Bhukarheri formerly belonged for the most part to the Chhatrauli Saiyids, who rose to eminence on the downfall of their Tihauguri brethren of Jansath in the reign of Muhammad Shah. The southern portion of the pargana was no doubt an early acquisition of the clan, but until a comparatively recent period the Jats and Tagas held their own in the north and were only ejected by purchase in the part of the Saiyids. In the turbulent times that followed the reign of Muhammad Shah the Jats of Bhukarheri and Belra attained to considerable power under the Pathans. The Saiyids, whose headquarters were at Morna, suffered severely from the inroads- of the Rohillas, especially after the construction of the great fort at Shukartar by the Nawab Najib-ud-Daula, when the power of the Pathdns came to an end their place was taken by the Gujar chieftains ; so that when the pargana cane under Brit­ish rule a large portion of the Saiyids were in a wretched condition, and although they got back the greater part of their original estates, they were too weak to retain them, and the first regular settlement was followed by great number of trans­fers. Within eight years of the conquest three estates were sold to the money-lenders of Landhaura for less than one year’s revenue, and another estate, now valued at Rs. 60,000, was sold to the Saiyids of Jauli for Rs. 300. Up to 1830 the Saiyids had lost nearly all their villages in the north of the pargana. The only other family worthy of mention in this pargana is the Sheikhzadas of Sikri, a reference to whom has been made in the article on that village. The ruins of the Shukartar fort, above mentioned, stand on the edge of the khadir at a distance of about a mile north of the Bijnor road. The fort has been entirely destroyed and now only the foundations of the bastions remain. Close to it on the east is the temple of Sukh Deo. Large fairs are held at Shukartar in. the months of Chait and Kartik, some 3,000 persona assembling; on each occasion.

BHUMA, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhbra, Tahsil Jansath.
This village, which gives its name to the pargana, lies near the Meerut border about a mile east of the Anupshahr Canal and two miles south of Miranpur. The canal is crossed by a bridge here and near it there is an inspection bungalow. The village belongs to the arni of Landhaura, who pays revenue of Rs. 3429 and is chiefly inhabited by Gujars, tagas, Pathans and Rangars. The populations at the last census amounted to 1839 persons, of whom 357 were musalmans. There is some trade, chiefly in grain and potatoes, with Meerut - and Khatauli. An aided school is maintained here. Bhuma was till 1816 the capital of a separate pargana, which was in that year united with Sambalhera. , The village was of considerable importance as being the home of a family of Saiyids, but these were ejected by Ram Dayal of Landhaura, whose descendants still remain in possession.

BHUMA SAMBALHERA Pargana, Tahsil Jansath.
This pargana forms the south-eastern portion of the tahsil and the district, being bounded on the east by the Ganges, which separates it from Bijnor, on the south by the Meerut district, on the west by Jauli Jansath pargana, and on the north by Bhukarheri. In its general aspect the pargana consists of two tracts—the uplands and the khadir of the Ganges. The whole of the uplands is characterised by sand, which is in this pargana more strongly marked than anywhere else in the district. A broad belt of sand runs down from the north, and branching off into two lines above the town of Mlranpur runs south­wards to join a level sandy plain which extends from the Jauli- Jansath pargana on the north-west as far as the south-eastern boundary of the district. There are a few excellent estates on the Meerut border to the south, but with this and a very few other exceptions, all the villages have a very large proportion of a sandy and inferior soil. On the extreme eastern edge of the uplands above the khadir lies a belt of wretched villages greatly broken up by ravines.
The khadir or alluvial tract, which borders the right bank of the Ganges, here has a breadth varying from four to six miles. The course of the river is shifting and uncertain and the land is traversed by numerous watercourses, but is generally dry and hard without any of the extensive swamps that are found in the north. The Ganges has for many years had a constant tendency to recede eastwards and a large portion of the khadir is now in consequences beyond the direct reach of fluvial action. For merely the yearly flood of the river left behind it a fertilizing deposit on which rice of excellent quality was raised, although, as always, the crops were very precarious owing to the number of pig and other wild animals. At the present time the upper portion of the khadir yields very little else than grass, which is exported for thatching purposes.

The total area of the pargana is 83,373 acres or 130 square miles. Of this 48,916 acres consist of uplands, the remainder being included in the khadir. The cultivated area at the present time amounts to 36.3S2 acres or 43 per cent., while as much as 16,250 acre3 are returned as barren. There has been a great falling off in cultivation of recent years for in 1872 41,160 acres were under the plough and in the year of settlement this had fallen to 40,089 acres. The kharif is the more important harvest and only 8 5 per cent, bears a double crop. Among the kharif crops bajra is the most important, which it itself proves the existence of inferior soil, while the bulk of the remainder consists of sugarcane, juar and rice. In the rabi wheat takes the lead, followed by barley and gram. The most noticeable changes of late years have been the decrease in the area under pure wheat and the decrease of rice, which during the last ten years has fallen by some 13 per cent. The pargana was settled in 1835 by Sir H. M. Elliot, who fixed the revenue at Rs. 47,193. In 1863 the demand was reduced by Mr. Grant to Rs. 45,706, but at the revision of 1872 this rose to Rs. 52,898. At the settlement of 1891 an enhancement of 14'4 per cent, was imposed on the upland portion of the pargana, while the revenue of the khadir was slightly decreased, the total demand being Rs. 60,460, and the average incidence per acre of cultivation being Rs. 1-10-0.
The pargana contains 89 villages, of which 47 are in the khadir. At the settlement of 1892 they were sub-divided into 208 mahals, of which 157 were held in single and joint zamindari, fifty in pattidari and one in bhaiyachara tenure. The Saiyids are the principal proprietors holding more than one-half of the entire pargana, while next to them come Banias, Jats and Gujars. In the upland portion the Jats, Gujars and Rangars are the principal cultivators, while tho bulk of tho remainder is tilled by Jhojhas and Saiyids. The jats hold the best land in the south- western and southern portions, and the Gujars and Rangars are chiefly found in the north. In the Khadir almost all the cultivators are Chauhans, who appears to have migrated hither from Bijnor. There are also a few Sanis and Bijnor Jats. The upland portion of the pargana is irrigated by the Anupshahr branch of the Ganges Canal, which runs through the sandy plain mentioned above. To the west of it flows the Salarpur distribu­tary, while the central portion is irrigated from the Sambalhera minor, and the left main rajbaha and the Miranpur distributary brings water to the eastern uplands, flowing straight from north to south, a short distance from the ravines. In the khadir the sole irrigation is from small earthen wells, which are mostly used for purposes of watering garden lands. The population of the pargana at the last census numbered 42,143 persons, of whom 2,200 were males and 20,143 females- Classified according to religions there were 29,705 Hindus, 12,307 Musalmans and 132 others, chiefly Jains At the census of 1872 the population numbered 35,990 souls, being at the rate of 275 to the square mile. It has since increased fairly rapidly, rising to 38,093 in 1881 and48, 803 in 1891. The chief town of the pargana is Miranpur, which was formerly a considerable market for the rice and sugar of Rohilkhand, the salt of the Punjab and the grain of the Duab. It is still a flourishing place, but a large amount of trade has been diverted to Khatauli and Muzaffarnagar owing to the construction of the railway. Sambalhera, Kithaura and Bhuma are all large villages, but are mere, agricultural commu­nities. Markets are held at Miranpur, Sambalhera and Hashimpur.
Miranpur is connected with Muzaffarnagar by an unmetalled road leading to Jansath and continuing south-east from Miranpur to Mowana in the Meerut district. The road from Meerut to Bijnor traverses the south-eastern corner of the pargana, crossing the Ganges by a bridge of boats at Dharampura. From the same point an unmetalled road leads to Miranpur and continues westwards to Khatauli. The north of the pargana is an inaccessible tract devoid of roads. There are canal bungalows at Bhuma and Qasimpur. In the days of Akbar, Bhuma and Sambalhera were separate Pargana, which consisted in 1816 of thirteen and sixteen villages respectively. The two were united at that date, and at the rearrangement in 1855 of the pargana boundaries 35 villages were added from the neighbouoring parganas of this district, from Hastinapur in Meerut and from Bijnor. In 1859 two more villages were added from Bijnor owing to change in course of the Ganges and two more in the same manner at a later date. The Saiyids of this pargana belong chiefly to the Chhatrauri and Kundliwal branches of the Barha Saiyids, The latter did not rise to any eminence, but tho former acquired considerable power and obtained possession of the whole of this and the neighbouring pargana of Bhukarheri, with the exception of a few estates owned by Kundliwals and Sheikhs. It has often been considered a matter for surprise among the Saiyids that their ancestors should have chosen for their home so unfertile a tract, but the locality possessed at least this advantage that is was less exposed to the covetousness of richer and stronger men. The wealthy purchasers who compete to buy land in the neighbouring parganas have shown no desire to extend their possessions in this direction, and the villages which the Saiyids have lost have only gone to local money-lenders. Besides when the Saiyids first came from Patina they had none of the power and distinction which afterwards fell to their lot. They had not then even the strength to eject the Rajputs, Jats, Gujars and Mewatis, who held the better land in the surrounding country. The Chhatrauri Saiyids during the reign of Muhammad Shah joined the forces of the Emperor and received considerable additions to their possession after the overthrow of the Saiyids of Jansath. They were not, however, powerful enough to hold their own in the anarchy which prevailed before the British conquest. During the latter half of the eighteenth century many of their villages passed into the hands of Raja Nain Singh, the Gujar chieftain of Bahsuma in Meerut and Ram Dayal of Landhaura. A severe famine added to their troubles, and many of them fled to Rohilkhand and Oudh and left their villages to the Gujars and Pathdns of Rohil­khand and the Sikh traders’ from the west of the Jumna. During the earlier years of British occupation Nain Singh held Dearly the whole pargana in form, but after his death the settle­ment was made with the original- proprietors, and the Saiyids then recovered their ancestral possession; and those who had emigrated returned year by year, but some unfortunately came back after so long an interval that they never regained their lost rights. During the last century the Chhatranris through mis­management lost a good deal of land, a further reason perhaps being the severity of the assessment which in bad seasons was a heavy burden upon such inferior land. At the same time many of the villages which have been sold were purchased by other wealthier Saiyids. Among the other purchasers may be men­tioned the Jats, Who by their industry and thriftiness have man­aged to become possessors of five or six villages formerly held by the Chhatrauris. In former years the khadir formed the refuge of marauding bands of Gujars, who plundered and destroyed in every direction, especially in the south. They were severely punished for their rebellion during the Mutiny. In one of their raids the Gujars of Siali attacked and looted Husainpur, which was then the principal place in the khadir, but which has seemingly never recovered. Another village, Hasanpur, on the edge of the uplands, which formerly belonged to a wealthy family of Saiyids, but has now passed into the hands of the money-lender, possesses several remains in the shape of brick- built houses and ruined mosques which attest the former pros­perity of this part of the pargana. The place is now entirely deserted and has long ceased to be of any importance.

BHURA, Pargana and Tahsil Kairana.
A large village on the east side of the road leading from Kairana to Jhinjhana, at a distance of four miles due north of the former, Close to it on the east flows the Kairana distributary of the Eastern Jumna Canal, from which the village lands are irrigated. Extending northwards from the village is a large tract of waste land, and again on tire west there is another similar tract sloping down to the Katha River. It is said to have been settled some time ago by one Rao Man Singh of Kairana, who according to the somewhat doubtful tradition had two sons, one of whom became a Musalman. The proprietors are still mainly Gujars of both religions, who hold the two mahals in bhaiyachara tenure, the total revenue being Rs. 3,830. The popu­lation at the last census numbered 2,694 persons, of whom 902 were Musalmans. There is a Government primary School.

BIDAULI, Pargana Bidauli, Tahsil Kairana.
The capital of the pargana is a somewhat insignificant village lying at a distance of 30 miles from Muzaffarnagar, with which it is connected by an unmetalled road leading through Shamli. This road continues to the banks of the Jumna and crosses the river by a bridge-of-boats leading to Karnal. A branch road leads to Bidauli from Kertu, the village site being at a distance of about a mile south from the main road. Another road runs from Bidauli to Chausana in the north of the pargana. The actual village site is somewhat raised, but the lands in the neighbour­hood all lie low. To the south of the village there is a low depression forming a series of marshes and jhils through which the Bhokri finds its way to the Jumna in the rains. The place has greatly deteriorated of late years, having suffered from floods, which have destroyed many of the houses. The cultivated area of the village has been greatly reduced owing to the spread of reh and the migration of the cultivators. The population, which in 1872 numbered 3,662 souls, had fallen at the last census to 2,538, of whom 1,408 were Musalmans and 58 Jains. The place was formerly administered under Act XX of 1856, but owing to its decay the operations of the Act have recently been withdrawn. Bidauli contains a police-station, a post-office, a cattle pound and a Government primary school. To the north of the village there is an encamping-ground on the route from Meerut to Karnal. Bidauli is the seat of the Jagneri family of the Barha Saiyids. These people fell into very reduced circumstances till the time of Saiyid Mehdi Husain, who acquired a considerable fortune by taking service under the King of Oudh, and recovered several of his ancestral villages. The family residence is in the small fort to the south of the village. A religious fair, attended by some 1,500 persons from the neighbouring country, takes place at Bidauli on every Thurs­day in Jeth and Asarhin honour of Pir Bahram, a local saint.

BIDAULI Pargana, Tahsil Kairana

This Pargana lies in the extreme north- west of the district between the river jamuna, which separate it from the Punjab on the west and jhinjhana on the east. To the south lies pargana Kairana, and to the north the Saharanpur district. The pargana has a peculiar character of its own, the whole of the tract being liable to annual inundations from the Jumna and constantly exposed to diluvion. More than one-half of the pargana is covered with thick dhak jungle, which has long formed a refuge for the Gujar cattle thieves. In the neighbourhood of the Jumna the land is greatly infected with reh, which appears to have increased of late years and to be slowly but steadily encroaching on the cultivation. The country is cut up by numerous watercourses and marked by several large jhils, which do not dry up till late in the year. Out of a total of fifty-four villages no less than thirty1 seven are recorded as precarious in whole or in part. Of these eighteen villages are described as alluvial, being subject to the direct fluvial action of the Jumna. This river has a constant. Ten­dency towards the east and during the last fifty years has cut off several villages from this district and added them to the Punjab. Generally speaking, it is the worst pargana in the district and there is little really good soil. The alluvial villages lie all along the Jamna, and where not covered by the annual floods are mere sand hills covered with tamarisk jungle. The whole of the centre of the pargana, too, is more or less insecure owing to the inunda­tions from the Jumna and the two streams known as the Khokri and the Sendhli, of which the former flows through the centre of the pargana from north to south, and the latter appears to be a backwater of the Jumna, which cuts off seven villages lying along the river from the rest of the pargana. These streams are merely irregular water channels which have no fixed course. In years of heavy rainfall they overflow their banks far and wide and have succeeded in throwing extensive tracts out of cultivation. The only villages which can be considered in any way secure are those which lie along the eastern boundary.
The total area of the pargana is 54,399 acres or 85 square - miles. Of this 15,589 acres, or only 28 per cent., were cultivated in 1901, a figure that represents a great falling off during the last ten years, for at the settlement 20880 acres were under the plough, while in 1872 the cultivate darea was 24320 acres, which is approximately the same as it was in 1841. of the remainder two- thirs are classed as culturable, but are so highly precarious that they could hardly repay cultivations.

BUDHANA, Pargana and Tahsil BUDHANA.
The headquarters town of the tahsil stands on the right bank of the Hindan river, at a distance of nineteen miles from Muzaf­farnagar and sixteen miles from Khatauli with which it is connected by unmetalled roads. Another road runs west to Kandhla, crossing the Shamli-Meerut road three miles from the town. The Hindan forms the northern boundary of the town, while to the west and south there is an almost continuous belt of mango groves. To the east there is a low-lying tract forming a portion of the Hindan khadir, which is submerged in time of flood. The town contains a fair proportion of the good brick-built houses, the outer walls of which adjoin each other. so as to form a kind of fortification, the town itself being entered by four openings called gates. The main site is raised and is generally considered healthy, owing no doubt to the natural drainage provided by the Hindan ravines. Besides the tahsil headquarters, Budhdna contains a first-class police-station, a branch post-office, a middle vernacular school and two indigenous schools supported by grant-in-aid from Government. The dispensary was opened in April 1900. Markets are held here weekly, but the place is unimportant as a trade centre. The village lands of Budhdna are extensive, covering 5,811 acres, and are held as a single bhaiyachdra mahal by Tagas, who pay revenue of Rs. 9,750. During the Mutiny the old fort of Budhdna was taken and garrisoned by Khairati Khan of Parasauli, who was assisted by the people of Jaula. It was re-captured on the 15th of September, 1857.
The population of the town in 1847 was 5,559; this had risen in 1853 to 8,750, but in 1865 the population was less than 5,000. In 1872 the place recovered considerably, the number of inhabit­ants being 6,162, and at the last census this had risen to 6,664 persons, of whom 3,989 were Hindus, 2,649 Musalmans and 26 Jains. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856. In 1901 out of a total of 1.373 houses, 1,009 were assessed to taxation with and incidence of Re. 1-7-10 per assessed house and Re.0-4-1 per head of population. The total uncome from all sources was Rs 2168 and of this Rs880 were expended on the upkeen of the town police force consisting of thirteen men of all grades Some Rs 470 are spent yearly on conservancy and Rs410 on local improvements.

BUDHANA Pargana, Tahsil BUDHANA.
This is the central pargana of the tahsil, lying to the south of Shikarpur, and being bounded on the south and south-east by the Meerut district. To the west lies Kdndhla, and to the north­west pargana Shamli of the Kairana tahsil. The eastern halves of the pargana lie between the Hindan and the West Kali Nadi, which unite at Riauli Nagla on the eastern border. Both of these rivers have a considerable stretch of khadir on either side, and beyond this land are greatly broken by ravines, into one of which falls the Deoband canal, which terminates a short distance to the east of the town of Budhdna. The khadir of the Hindan is very superior to that of the Kali Nadi, the latter having greatly deteriorated of late years. The land between these two rivers is the only part of the pargana which has the benefit of canal irrigation, which extends to seven villages in the uplands above the khddir between the two rivers, the soil of which is for the most part an excellent loam. The khadir lands are occasionally irrigated from the rivers and produce fair crops. West of the Hindan is a level plain of uniform quality, extending as far as the boundary of the pargana, with a fertile soil of rich loam. There are no canals here, and irrigation is provided by means of wells, which are chiefly earthen, constructed with wooden cylinders. These wells last for six or seven years and cost on an average from Rs. 25 to Rs. 30 each; where the land irrigated from them is held by tenants-at-will the cost is usually borne by the proprietors.

The total area of the pargana is 51,171 acres, or nearly 80 square miles. . Of this 37,652 acres, or 73 per cent., were cultivated in 1901, as against 33,666 acres cultivated in 1848, and 35,874 acres at the settlement of 1872. The irrigated area in the same year amounted to 14912 acres, of which 87 percent were watered from wells and the bulk of the remainder from the Deoband canal. Of the remaining area 6850 acres are returned as barren or under water. The principal crops of the pargana are wheat and gram in the rabi and juar, maize and sugarcane in the kharif with a considerable amount of cotton. The most noticeable features in this connection are the increase in the area under pure wheat and the disappearance of barley, and the small amount of sugarcane, which in the last 3’ear of record does not exceed five per cent, of the cultivated area; its absence appears due to the fact that the water supply is not plentiful, and also that this crop prefers a somewhat lighter soil.
The revenue of the pargana in 1848 amounted to Rs. 69,116 and at Mr. Keene’s assessment of 1863 was raised to Rs. 169,846. The previous assessment by Mr. Trevor Plowden was by no means a light one, especially as the pargana had formed part of (the jagir of Sardhana, and had suffered considerably, although it fared better than the other parganas of the estate, as the Diwan of the Begam was a resident and hereditary Chaudhri of Budhdna. In the famine of 1860 the pargana again suffered greatly, and for this reason a light assessment was deemed necessary. How­ever, at Mr. Cadell’s revision in 1870 the, demand was raised to Rs. 71,146, and at the last settlement of 1892 the tract had so far improved that it was found possible to take an enhancement of as much as 47'6 per cent)., the demand being fixed at Rs. 1, 05,317, which now falls with an average incidence of Rs. 2-12-7 per acre of cultivation. The pargana contains 44 villages, which at the settlement of 1892 were divided into 217 mahals, of which 89 were held in bhaiyachara tenure, 86 in single and joint zamindari and 42 by pattidars. The principal proprietors are Jats, Rajputs, Pathans and Tagas, while a number of shares have fallen into the hands of Banias. Gujars hold one village in the east of the pargana, but are here found in small numbers as compared with Kandhla. The Jats hold the best villages while the Tagas are found chiefly in the immediate neighbourhood of Budhdna, the Rdjput3 in the south and south-east along the Kali Nadi, and the Rawahs in three villages in the south-west. The large village of Jauli on the western boundary belongs to the Saiyida of Jansath as is mentioned in the article on the village.
The population of the pargana at the last census numbered 50994 persons, of whom 27315 were males and 23697 females. Musalmans are unusually numerous in this pargana, numbering 15,277, as against 84,350 Hindus and l, 367 others. In 1872 the pargana contained 41,576 inhabitants, and in the following ten years the number rose to 44,227 and to 46, 019 in 1891, since which date the increase has been even more rapid. Budhdna is the only town in the pargana, but it is a place of no great importance. There are several large villages, such as Jauli, Kharar, Barauda, Husainpur and Bitaoda, all of which are separately mentioned. Markets are held at Budhdna and Husainpur, and postoffices are maintained in the same places.
Budhdna is connected with Muzaffarnagar by an unmetalled road which crosses the Hindan by a ferry and continues westwards to Kandhla. Through the south-west of the pargana runs the road from Shamli to Meerut, with a small branch leading to Daha in that district. The only other road is that running from Budhdna to Khatauli, which leaves the Muzaffarnagar road some two miles from the tahsil headquarters. There is little to add about the history of the pargana. It was constituted as such in the days of Akbar, and, as has been already mentioned, formed part of the Sardhana estate. In the year 1842 it was transferred from Meerut to this district.

BUDHANA TAHSIL
This is the south-western subdivision of the district and con­sists of the tract lying between the Baghpat and Sardhana tahsil of the Meerut district on the south, the Khatauli pargana of tahsil Jansath on the east, pargana Baghra of the Muzaffarnagar tahsil and the Shamli and Kairana parganas on the north, while the western boundary is the river Jumna, which separates the tahsil from the Karnal district of the Panjdb. The tract is of an irregular shape, narrowing almost to a point as it approaches the Jumna on the west. It consists of the three parganas of Budhdna, Shikarpur and Kandhla, each of which have been separately described, in detail, with a full account of their physical characteristics, revenue, agriculture and proprietors.
It will be sufficient, therefore, to give here a brief description of the tahsil as a whole. All along the eastern border flows the Kali Nadi, which is joined on the Sardana border by the Hindan, which flows from north to south through the Shikarpur and Budhdna parganas? Further west we come to the Kirsani, a stream that enters Kandhla from Shamli and then flows south into the Meerut district. Besides these natural water channels, the tahsil is traversed in the east by the Deoband canal which passes through Shikarpur and then empties itself into a small tributary of the Hindan in pargana Budhdna: in the west of Kandhla is the Eastern Jumna Canal, which flows from north to south near the edge of the uplands of the district. The uplands between the Hindan and Kirsani livers consist of a level plain with a rich I am soil which becomes lighter towards the south-west. Between the Kirsani and the Jumna canal lies a tract of first-class land comprising the finest villages of the whole tahsil. Beyond the canal the quality of the soil deteriorates, the land in places lying low and being liable to swamping.
The tahsil, though as yet possessing no railway, is fairly well supplied with means of communication, which will be vastly improved by the construction of the Shahdara-Sahd- ranpur line. The towns of Budhana and Karnal are connected with Muzaffarnagar by a second-class road, from which a branch takes off near Budhdna leading to Khatauli. This road is crossed a short distance west of Budhdna by the second-class road from Meerut to Shamli, while Kandhla is connected by fair roads with Kairana, Shamli and Baghpat in the Meerut district. Besides these, all the more important village are connected by serviceable cart-tracks. The principal towns are Kandhla, a small municipality, and Budhana and Shahpur, both of which are administered under Act XX of 1856. At these places the principal markets are held, but there is no trade or handicraft deserving special mention. The only articles of any note made in the tahsil arc the blankets of Qangeru in pargana Kandhla, and the brass and bell-metal wares of Shahpur. The tahsil possesses a large number of populous villages in which small local markets arc held and which have been separately described.
Budhana forms a sub-division of the district in the charge of a full-powered Magistrate of the district staff. For the purposes of civil jurisdiction it is united with kairana to form a single Munsifi, the headquarters being at Kairana. Police-stations are established at; Budhana, Shahpur and Kandhla, the circles of these stations being conterminous with the limits of the parganas in which they are situated, with the exception of Shikarpur, part of which lies within the jurisdiction of Kandhla police-station. Post-offices are established at each of these places, and also at Husainpur, Shikarpur and Sisauli.
The population of the tahsil at the last census numbered 197,034 persons, of whom 105,404 were males and 91,360 females. Classified, by religions there were 137,389, Hindus, 53,532 Musalmans, 3,975 Jains, 1,106 Aryas, 1,010 Christians and 22 Sikhs. The principal Hindu castes are Chamars, who numbered 24,842 persons, Jats 22,603, Brahmans 13,220, Kabars 10,434, Banias 7,869, and Rajputs 7,834. The bulk of the Rajputs are of the Jadon, Kachhwaha and Chauhan clans, this tahsil con­trasting strongly with Kairana in the absence of Pundirs. Besides these, there are large numbers of Gujars, Bhungis and Sainis. Among the Musalmans converted Rajpuis take the lead, fallowed by Sheikhs, Julahas, Jats, Qassabs anti Gujars. As in Kairana, the Saiyids are found in small numbers, the bulk of their possession lying in the eastern half of the district.
The great mass of the population derives subsistence from agriculture in some form or other. As has been already men­tioned, the trade of the tahsil, is insignificant; what there is, is chiefly in grain, sugar and cotton. A considerable number of people, amounting to 3,452, work in leather, which is exported to Meerut, and 3,236 persons are returned as engaged in com­merce; moat of these carry on the trade in grain between the Panjab and the railway, almost all the markets of this tahsil having trade connections with Muzaffarnagar.

CHARTHAWAL, Pargana Chahthawal, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar     Inspection bungalow. From this bridge the CharthAwal rajbaha is given off, while two miles further north and a mile from the outskirts of Charthawal the Lohari distributary leaves the canal. Beyond the canal to the west, at a distance of three miles, flows the Hindan River, while to the east are a small tributary of the Kali Nadi. The village lands of Charthawal are very extensive, covering an area of 6, 089 acres and paying revenue of Rs. 10,380. They are divided, into 16 mahals, held in zamindari and bhaiyachara tenures by a very large body of Tagas. The-town itself is surrounded with numerous groves, which cover as much as 170 acres. There are numerous tanks and excavations in the neigh­bourhood in which stagnant water collects, but the bulk of the drainage runs off to the Kali Nadi. Formerly Charthawal was the headquarters of an Amil, but is now a small agricultural town- with an unimportant bazar, in which markets are held on Fridays. Three unimportant fairs are held at Charthdwal, two. In Chait, known as the Ghantoli and Debi fairs, and the third in Bhadon. There is a police-station, here, a post-office and a. Government primary school
The population of the town, which in 1853 numbered 6,467 inhabitants, had fallen to less than 5,000 in 1865. At the census of 1872 it numbered 5,121 souls, rising to 5,251 in 1891. At the last census of 1901 Charthawal contained 6,363, inhabitants, o£ whom 3,280 were males and 2,956 females. Classified according to religions, there are 3,803 Hindus, 2,354 Musalmans and 79 Jains and Aryas. The Tagas number more than half of the Hindu populations, and. over 1,000 have some proprietary right. The- town is administered, under Act XX of 1856. The total number of houses is 1,153, of which 848 were assessed to taxation in 1901, with an incidence of Rs. 1-8-0 per assessed house and Re. 0-3-10- per head of population. The total income for the year was Rs. 1,505, and from this Rs. 695 were expended on the upkeep of the town police-force, which consists o£ ten men, while Rs.333 are spent yearly on conservancy and Rs, 175 on local improvements.
South lies pargana Baghra and to the north the Saharanpur district. The central and eastern portions of the pargana form part of the Hindan Kali Duab. The Hindan flows from north to south through the pargana and on the western side of it there is a small and inferior khadir fringed by a strip of broken land beyond which there is a stretch of rich though sometimes low-lying land. This tract is crossed by two extensive ravines, one in the north, which is a natural drainage line from the Saharanpur district; and the other further south leading to the Hindan from the village of Baralsi. The villages in the north of this tract are poor, having extensive tracts of waste land, but in the south a slight improve­ment is noticeable.

On the east side of the Hindan the khadir is much more extensive, the high bank being sometime more than a mile from the stream. At the same time there is very little good cultivation in this tract and large areas consist of uncultivable waste or swamps. Beyond this there is a high-lying fertile plain which stretches, across the pargana towards the Kali and is only broken by a large ravine that runs from Deoband in Saharanpur into the KSli close to Muzaffarnagar. In the south of the pargana there is a small stretch of sandy soil which runs southwards into Baghra. With these exceptions the soil is generally a good loam with a considerable admixture of clay towards the north. This tract appears to have suffered greatly in the past in years of drought as it was entirely dependent on well irrigation. It now is traversed by the Deo­band canal which runs from north to south through the centre of the pargana, passing close to the town of Charthawal. From this two distributaries, known as the Charthawal and Lohari rajbahas, take off, irrigating the south and centre of the pargana, while tho eastern portion is watered from the Bastam rajbaha of the same canal.
West of the Hindan flows the Kalarpur distributary of the Ganges Canal, which, with its minor branches, irrigates almost the whole of this tract. At the present time only a few villages 1901—a figure that shows a slight decrease during he past thirty, years, but which considerably exceeds the area cultivated before the introduction of the canal, as in 184S the area plough amounted in all to 39,586 acres. The irrigated area amounts to 14,453 acres, or 32 per cent., and of this five-sixths are watered from the canal and the remainder from wells and tanks. The number of wells is comparatively small, but almost all of these are of masonry. The principal crops are wheat and gram in the rabi and juar, rice and sugarcane in the kharif. Wheat is the most important crop here, as everywhere in the tahsil and is generally sown alone.
The pargana contains sixty villages, which at. The time of the last settlement were divided into 124 mahals, of which 44 were held in zamindari, 43 in bhaiyachara and 37 in patiddari tenure. Almost the whole of the portion west of the Hindan is held by Rajputs, the chief exceptions being one estate held by Rohilla Pathans, three shares belonging to the Karnal family and two villages the greater part of which are owned by Rawahs. East of the Hindan a few Rajputs arc found in the neighborhood of the Hindan and Kali rivers, but the leading proprietors in the centre and in the north-east of the pargana are Tagas, although a number of shares have fallen into the hands of the Banias. The east of the pargana was formerly owned by Saiyids, who still hold six villages of which two belong to the Morna branch and two to the Ratheri branch of the Barha family. The cultivators are chiefly Rajputs and Tagas, with a few Jilts, Sanis and Garahs.
The revenue of the pargana in 1841 was assessed by Mr. Thornton at Rs. 63,790. This assessment was very heavy, and fell with particular severity on the Saiyids’ estate, although the introduction of the canal greatly increased the prosperity of the tract. In 1860, however, Charthwal suffered much from famine and the number of emigrants was calculated by Mr. Keene at 6,745. At the settlement of 1862 by Mr. Colvin the revenue was reduced to Rs. 61,257, which was raised in 1870 .at the revision by Mr. Cadell to Rs. 61,636, which fell with an incidence of Re. 1-6-0 per . Acre of cultivation, at the last settlement the demand was raised to Rs. 86,904, showing an enhancement of 29-1 over the expiring jama, the present inci­dence per acre of cultivation being Rs, 2-0-2—a figure that At the census of 1872 Charthdwal contained 41,575 inhab­itants, but in the following ten years the population dropped to 89,489. At the last census, however, a substantial increase was found to have occurred, the number of inhabitants being 45,666, of whom 24,656 were males and 21,010 females. Classified according to religions there were 31,472 Hindus, 13,749 Musalmans and 445 others, Jains, Sikhs and Aryas. The principal Hindu castes are Chamars, Tagas and Rajputs, most of who are of the Pundir clan. The only important towns in the pargana are Charthawal and Kotesra, both of which are separately mentioned, as is, also Baralsi, a large villagein the west of the pargana. The only other village that has a population of over 2,000 persons is Dudhli on the right bank of the Hindan, where an annual fair is held. The chief market is at Charthawal and the small bazar is held at Kotesra.
The pargana is poorly supplied with means of communica­tion. The North-Western Railway runs along the western border with a station known as Rohdna, which is actually situated in tho village of Baheri in this pargana. Parallel to it on the east runs the road from Muzaffarnagar to Deoband and Sahdranpun Tho only other road of the pargana is that leading from Muzafiarnagar to Charthdwal and Thdna Bhawan, which crosses the Deoband canal by a bridge near Charthdwal and the Hindan river by a ferry at Arnaich, and, then passing by Baralsi, crosses the Kalar- pur distributary by a bridge before entering Thdna Bhawan pargana. The Deoband canal is also bridged at Kotesra, Ghisu Khera, Mohibalipur and Kulheri.
The pargana has been known as Charthawal for several centuries, and is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari, but many changes have taken place in its area by transfer to and from the neighbouring parganas. In 1840 fifteen villages were received from Thana Bhawan and five villages from the neighbouring parganas of the Saharanpur district. Apart from the district the pargana has no snec.ml hiet.

CHAUSANA, Pargana Bidauli, Tahsil Kairana.
A considerable village in the north of the pargana, at a distance of eight miles from Bidauli, "with which it is connected by unmetalled road, and 33 miles from Muzaffarnagar. The village lands are extensive, covering 5,501 acres, and reach as far west as the Jumna, but in this direction the land is all alluvial and covered with dhalc trees or tamarisk jungle. The revenue amounts to Rs. 3,244, and is paid by the Chauhan proprietors. Chaustina possesses a police-station, post-office and a village school. The population at the last census numbered 2,246 inhabitants, of whom 1,022 were Musalmans and 45 Jains. A small market is held here weekly.
CHHAPAR, Pargana Pur Chhapak, Tahsil Muzaffar­nagar.
This village, which gives its name to the pargana, lies on the east side of the metalled road running from Muzaffarnagar to Pur and Roorkee, at a distance of nine miles from Muzaffarnagar and seven miles from Pur. Through the village passes the Barla rajbaha of the Ganges Canal, while a short distance further east is the right main distributary. The village lands are extensive, having an area of 2,843 acre3, and are cultivated by Tagas. They consist of two joint zamindari mahals assessed to revenue of Rs. 5,850. The village is the home of a rich family of Banias, who own a considerable amount of laud in the pargana. Chhapar contains a post-.office and a primary school. A small bazar is held here weekly, but the village is mainly agricultural in character. The population, which in 1865 numbered 2,300 persons, had risen at the last census to 3,140 persons, the majority of whom are Tagas, both Hindu and Musalman. The Tagas of Chhapar appear to have surrendered their village at the beginning of the nineteenth century to one of the Saiyids of Jansath for protection against Raja Ram Dayal.
 
GANGERU, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil BudhAna.
A very large and straggling village in the western half of the pargana about three miles west of Kandhla, with which it is connected by a rough unmetalled track, and 35 miles from Muzaffarnagar. The village itself stands high between the Khandrauli and Kandhla distributaries of the Eastern Jumna Canal. The drainage is affected by means of the numerous tanks and depressions that surround the site. In former days Gao- geru possessed some little importance as being the chief town of a very small pargana which consisted of only two villages, and which was absorbed into Kandhla in 1840. Gangeru now con- rains a village school. At present its only claim to a separate notice is the size of its population, which in 1872 numbered 5,117 souls, and at the last census of 1901 had risen to 6,401 persons, of whom 2,749 were Hindus, 3,263 Musalmans and 389 of other reli­gions, chiefly Sikhs and Jains. Blankets are made here to some extent, the wool being imported from the Panjab.

GARHI, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana.

Garhi Dubhar, also known as Garhi Mian Bhjii Khan, or Garhi Pukbta, is a considerable village in the east of the pargana, about- two miles west at the Eastern Jumna Canal, six miles from Jhinjhana, with which it is connected by a small unmetalled road, and 23 miles from Muzaffarnagar. The site of the village is raised, but between it and the canal the land lies low and retains a considerable quantity of water during the rains. There are several fine groves in the neighbourhood of the village and to the west flows the Kairana distributary of the canal, the streets are partly paved with bricks and meet in the middle of the village, where there is a large well. Many of the houses are substantial structures of brick, but some of these are now in ruins. Markets are held daily, but the chief day is Sunday; a fair trade is carried on in sugar, grain and salt. The place is very unhealthy, chiefly owing to the in sanitary condition of the streets, and also in Dart to the risfi of relative of the zamindars. Almost the whole village is held revenue-free tenure.

GORDHANPUR, Pargana Gordhanpur, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
The capital of the pargana is situated in the low-lying tracts of the Ganges khadir between the Solfini on the west an: the Banganga on the east, close to the Saharanpur border. Three unmetalled roads lead from Gordhanpur to Pur, Taghlaqpur and Sikri, but all of them are difficult, if not impassable, during the rains. It lies at a distance of nine miles from Pur and 26 miles from Muzaffarnagar. Gordhanpur contains a firs'-class police-station, post-office, cattle-pound and a small bazar in which markets are held twice a week, on Wednesdays. The village itself is very small, having a population of only 645 per­sons, many of whom arc Gujars. It pays revenue of Rs. 410.
GORDHANPUR Pargana, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
This pargana lies in the extreme north-east of the district, being bounded on the east by the river Ganges and on the north and north-east by the Saharanpur district. To the south lie3 pargana Bhukarheri and to the west Pur Chhapar. The whole of the pargana lies in the khadir of the Ganges and consists of a swampy inferior tract, which during the rains is cut off from all communication with the rest of the district and can only be entered from the Saharanpur border. The western boundary of the khadir is the old high bank of the Ganges under which now flows the Solfini River. The high bank consists of a strip of cliffs, broken by sandy ravines, which sometimes attain the height of one hundred feet. The khadir has its greatest width in the north, where it attains to as much as twelve miles; it grad­ually narrows towards the south in the direction of Bhukar­heri. It is said that, prior to the opening of the Ganges Canal and the change of course in the Solfini, which occurred in the year 1852, the khadir had been for some years fairly fertile. The canal was of the uplands. In 1859 it was recognised by Mr. Edwards who was then Collector of the district that the khadir estates had undergone serious deterioration and that reduction in revenue were necessary. From that time onwards, in the words of Mr. Miller, “the Gordhanpur khadir has received an amount of attention probably never given to any equality worthless tract of similar size.” The deteriorating influence is three in number: The first of these are the floods from the Sold on; the second is the consequent formation of permanent swamps; while the third is the increase of reh, which has thrown large tracts of land out of cultivation? The last two causes are directly attribu­table to the existence of the canal, which, running as it does at a height of one hundred feet above the Ganges, has estab­lished a percolating connection with that river. The subsoil of the khadir may be likened to an earthy sponge on which the water percolating from the canal exercises a symphonic influence. The result is that the greatest amount of water logging is to be found in these estates which lie nearest to the base of the cliffs; further eastwards the swamping decreases, but the water is always close to the surface, while reh is thrown up by any soil that is a liable to its influence. The Solaai river is generally beneficial, except in the rains, for it acts as a drain, and but for the presence of the canal would undoubtedly dry up before the hot weather. A3 it is, it runs continuously throughout the year, thus protecting a considerable stretch of land on its banks from remaining perpe­tually waterlogged swamps. In the rains, however, its stream becomes swollen and frequently comes down in sudden rushes, overflowing all the neighboring country, and occasionally leaving behind it a deposit of sand. This in itself would not be of so much importance was it not for the constant danger that the river may strike out a new course for itself.
The total area of the pargana is 50,653 acres or 79 square miles. Of this 10,533 acres, or less than 21 per cent., were culti­vated in 1001, which shows a considerable decrease, amounting to 4,000 acres, during the last ten years. In 1841 as much as well only are used for watering gardea lands. The chief staples are wheat and barley in the rabi, and rice, maize and bajra in the kharif, with a considerable proportion of cotton. In the centre of the pargana very fair crops are raised, especially wheat, sugarcane and gram, but throughout the rest of the khadir the rabi crops are of the poorest description. The rice grown here is said to be of an excellent quality, but the kharif harvest i3 always precarious, as sudden floods may ruin it entirely. The revenue of the pargana in 1841 amounted to Rs. 20,466, which fell at the rate of Re. 1-3-6. Since then the fiscal history of the pargana has been that of a series of reductions. In 1863 the demand was fixed at Rs. 17,402, and at the revision by Mr. Cadell in 1872 this was reduced to Rs. 16,720. At the last settlement a further reduction of two per cent, was made, giving a revenue of Rs. 16,385, which falls at the rate of Re. 1-8-9 per acre of cultivation, from which it is evident that the condition of the pargana is improving, although the actual sum paid to Government is less than ever before. Besides the regular settlement of the pargana, the assessment has been exposed from time to time to various experiments. After the reduction affected by Mr. Edwards the revenue was slighty raised again in 1862 by Mr. Keene, and again reduced in 1864 by Mr. Martin, and then the whole khadir was handed over to the direct management of the Canal Depart­ment. Several drains were constructed as well as a large dam. to keep the Solani within bounds ; but the new masters, finding that they had undertaken a task with which they would not cope successfully, made haste to return the property to the revenue authorities, In 1866 Mr. Martin considered the tract to be still deteriorating, but in the following year the Board of Revenue formed an entirely opposite opinion, and for a few years desperate endeavors were made to induce capitalists to invest their money and take up portions’ of the pargana under the waste-land rules. In 1872 Mr. Cadell proved that the view taken by the Board was wrong and started a system of one year leases, which were increased to three years until Mr. Miller's settlement of 1892'.
During the last ten years two events of importance have that the whole of the khadir would be submerged if the dam bursts every village was cleared of its inhabitants and the results of such a measure on the cultivators can be easily imagined. They obeyed the orders to vacate the villages, but when the danger was passed showed no inclination to return. The area under cultiva­tion decreased enormously and at Mr. McPherson’s settlement of 1896 a substantial reduction in revenue had to be made. The cultivators are now gradually returning, but the population is still less than in Mr. Miller’s time. The second change of import­ance was a severe flood and a change in the course of the Solani, which occurred in the rains of 1900. The flood when, it retreated, was found to have converted some stretches of swamps and jhil in nine villages into firm land. At the same time, while there is now somewhat less swamp and the capabilities of the soil have to- some small extent improved, it seems clear that the pargana, so- long as the Ganges Canal is running, can never be anything else than a precarious fever-stricken tract where cultivation, besides being insecure, is only possible at the: risk of health.
The population of the pargana in 1872 numbered 13,394 persons. In 1881 it had fallen- to- 11,870 souls, but in 1891 a. slight recovery was shown, the total being 12,222. At the last census this had risen to 12,345 persons, of whom 6,829 were males- and 5,516 females. Classified according to religions, there were 10,728 Hindus-, 1,614 Musalmans and three Jains. The pargana- contains 76 villages, which in 1892 were subdivided into 86 mahals, of which 47 were held in pattidari and 39 in zamindari tenure. Most of the pargana is in the hands of the Gujars. The Saiyids own a few estates, and a. number of villages is the souths are owned by a Jat of Bhukarheri. Besides the Gujars, the only other cultivating caste of any importance is the Sanis, who are chiefly found in the immediate neighbourhood of the Ganges. There is no village of any size in the whole pargana; the chief is Gordhanpur khads, but this is entirely an insignificant place with a population of only 645 inhabitants. A small market is held- hero, but besides this there is neither market nor school in the whole pargana. From Gordhanpur, leading to Pur, Tughlaqpur and Sikri. The road irom Tughlaqpur has become almost impracticable, as a great deal of the land through which it passes u.swampjd by the Solfini. The best road is that from Pur which affords a tolerably easv approach to the pargana in dry whether. Another road constructed by the Canal Department runs from Gordhanpur to Roorkee. Through the extreme north-eastern corner of the pargana runs the Oudh aud Rohilkhand Railway which crosses the Ganges by the Balawali Bridge, where there was formerly a ferry.
Gordhanpur or Gobardhanpur represents a portion of the old pargana of Tughlaqpur, which was subsequently “known as Nurnagar from the village of that name in pargana Pur. In 1841 fifteen villages were added to the pargana from the Saharanpur district and one from Thdna Bhawan, while five villages were transferred from Nurnagar to Manglaur, nine to Roorkee and three to Jawalapur. In 1883 six villages were added to Gor­dhanpur from the Bhukarheri pargana.

GULA, Pargana ShikArpur, Tahsil Budhana.
A large village in the south-east of the pargana about five miles south-east of Shahpur and fourteen miles from Muzaffar­nagar, It lies on the high ground above the Kali Nadi, the land being much cut up by ravines which lead down to, the river bed, which is here a mile wide. The place lies off the road and beyond the reach of the canal, and is generally considered unhealthy. .The population, which in 1872 numbered 2,316, had raised in 1901 to 3,098 persons, of whom 4.0 were Musalmans and 105 Jains and Sikhs; Hindu Jats form the bulk of the popu­lation. There is a primary school here, but nothing else of any interest or importance in the village. Poor cart-tracks connect it with Budhana and the roads to Muzaffarnagar and Khatauli.

HARHARI Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairana.
A small village lying three miles south of Thana Bhawan on the road to Shamli, and situated on the high land above the Kir- family of Muzaffarnagar, who pay a revenue of Rs. 3,500. The number of inhabitants at the last census numbered 1,355, of whom 184 were Musalmans and 22 Jains. A largo number of the Hindus are Rajputs of the Pundir clan, who formerly owned the village and bad for here. These people during the mutiny took an active part in creating disturbance in this part of the country. They waged war against all-comers, robbing and murdering every traveler that passed. The place was taken by the flying column who found here forty cart-loads of plundered property belonging to merchants of Shamli. On the restoration of order the village was confiscated and sold to the ancestor of the present) proprietors. The old fort is now in ruins and overgrown with jungle.
HARSAULI, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A large village in the south-east of the pargana, lying about a mile west of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Budhdna, at a distance of nine miles from the district headquarters. A poor cart-track connects the village with the main road, while others lead to Barwala, Baghra and Kakra. Harsauli possesses a village school, but nothing else of any importance. The popu­lation at the last census numbered 3,069 persons, the bulk of whom are Jats, both Hindu and Musalman. It belongs to Jats of both creeds who hold the seven patties at a revenue of Rs. 6,435.
HUSAINPUR, Pargana and Tahsil Budhana.
A large .village lying three miles north of Budhdna, on the right bank of a ravine tinning down to the Hindan, and about a mile south of tho Shikarpur boundary. It lies off the road, but is connected by cart-tracks with Budhdna and the neigh­bouring villages. A market is held here weekly on Mondays. The village contains a post-office and an aided indigenous school. The population in 1901 numbered 2,251 persons, of whom 1,011 were Musalmans and 92 Jains, who carry on some trade in grain with Muzaffarnagar. The village belongs to a body of Pathans and pays revenue of Rs. 2,150.

HUSAINPUR, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil Jansath.
This village, also known as Husainpur Babadurpur, is situated in the middle of the Ganges khadir on the west side of the road from Meerut to Bijnor, at a distance of two miles south-west from the Dharampura Bridge and 22 miles from Muzaffarnagar. It forms one of the stages on the route from Meerut to Bijnor; but there is no regular encamping-ground. Husainpur was formerly of some importance and a considerable market was held here. During the mutiny it was plundered and destroyed by the Gujars of the neighbouring village of Siali, and since then has never recovered its former position. It is now a squalid, unhealthy village surrounded by grass jungle, which harbours quantities of pig and other animals, rendering the cultivation precatious. It belongs to Chauhan zamindars, which pay a revenue of only Rs. 190. The population, which is 1872 numbered 1,835 persons had fallen at the last census of 1901 to 646, most of whom are Chamars. There is a post-office here, but nothing else of any importance.

ILAHABAS, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath.
A small village on the main road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor, which is here joined by the road from Bhukarheri to Deoband, at a distance of 18 miles from the district headquarters, It is situated on the edge of the Ganges khadir, across which the road runs to Matwali Ghat where there is a bridge of boats. The, place is only noticeable as possessing a police outpost of the Bhopa police-station. The population at the last censu3 was only 282 persons, most of whom are Chamars. The village is held in pattidari tenure and pays a revenue of Rs. 610,

JALALABAD, Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairana.
An old town on the east side of the road leading from Shamli to Saharanpur, at a distance of two miles north of Thana Bhawan and 21 miles from Muzaffarnagar. From the town a branch road leads to Titron and Gangoh in Saharanpur. The town is sur- collects. The town is in a state of decay and is generally very dirty and unhealthy. It contains a post-office, a middle school and an aided vernacular school. Markets are held here twice a week, on Sundays and Thursdays, but the trade has to a large extent passed- away, owing possibly to the exorbitant dues demanded by the owners. A small Musalman fair, known as the Roshani Janat Sharif, takes place here yearly on the 3rd of Rabiul-awwal and is attended by some 2,000 persons. The population, which in 1847 numbered 7,789 souls, had fallen in 1872 to 6,904, and at the last census of 1901 to 6,822 inhabitants, of whom 3,147 were Hindus, 3,654 Musalmans and 21 of other religions.
The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, and in 1901 out of a total of 1,712 houses, 1,204 were assessed to taxation, with an incidence of Re. 1-8-0 per assessed house and Re. 0-0 9 per bead of population. The total income from all sources was Rs. 2,282. The police force consists of thirteen men of all grades, maintained at an annual cost of Rs. 900. Some Rs. 800 is devoted yearly to conservancy, and the average amount spent on local improvements during the last three years is Rs. 396.
Jalalabad is said to have received its name from one Jalal Khan, a Pathan, in the reign of the Emperor Auransjzeb, and is still held by his descendants. About a mile distance from the town to the south stand the remains of the celebrated fort of Ghausgarh, built by the Rohilla Najib Khan. The fort is constructed of mud and is now in ruins and the land within its circuit i9 cultivated by Rawahs. Within the fort stands a mosque with ah enormous well built in the time of Nawab Zabita Khan. During the rule of the latter the town was more than once sacked by the Mahrattis, and a Mahratta still holds a small revenue-free grant in Manikpur close by. At the death of Ghulam Qadir the site of Ghausgarh was deserted, and though General Perron gave order that the fort was to be restored, the work was undertaken too late, for Lord Lake had already- reached Dehli. The Pathans qf Jaldlabad remained quiet during the mutiny and one of the leaders did good services as Tahsildars of Thana Bhawan after its capture.
HUSAINPUR, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil Jansath.
This village, also known as Husainpur Babadurpur, is situated in the middle of the Ganges khadir on the west side of the road from Meerut to Bijnor, at a distance of two miles south-west from the Dharampura Bridge and 22 miles from Muzaffarnagar. It forms one of the stages on the route from Meerut to Bijnor; but there is no regular encamping-ground. Husainpur was formerly of some importance and a considerable market was held here. During the mutiny it was plundered and destroyed by the Gujar of the neighbouring village of Siali, and since then has never recovered its former position. It is now a squalid, unhealthy village surrounded by grass jungle, which harbours quantities of pig and other animals, rendering the cultivation precautious. It belongs to Chauhan zamindars, which pay revenue of only Rs. 190. The population, which in 1872 numbered 1,835 persons, had fallen at the last census of 1901 to 646, most of whom are chamars. There is a post-office here, but nothing else of any importance.
ILAHABAS, Pargana, Bhukarheri, Tahsll Jansath.
A small village on the main road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor, which is here joined by the road from Bhukarheri to Deoband, at a distance of 18 miles from the district headquarters. It is situated on the edge of the Ganges khadir, across which the road runs to Matwali Ghats where there is a bridge of boats. The place is only noticeable as possessing a police outpost of the Bhopa police-station. The population at the last census was only 282 persons, most of whom are Chamdrs. The village is held in pattidari tenure and pays revenue of Rs. 610.
JALALABAD, Pargana Thana BeRvwan, Tahsil Kairana.
An old town on the east side of the road leading from Shamli to Saharanpur, at a distance of two miles north of Thana Bhawan and 21 miles from Muzaffarnagar. From the town a branch road finnonli in Saharanpur. The town is sure- collects. The town is in a state of decay and is generally very dirty and unhealthy. It contains a post-office, a middle school and an aided vernacular school. Markets are held here twice a week, on Sundays and Thursdays, but the trade has to a large extent passed- away, owing possibly to the exorbitant dues demanded by the owners. A small Musalman fair, known as the Roshani Janat Sharff, take a place here yearly on the 3rd of Rabiul-awwal and is attended by some 2,000 persons. The population, which in 1847 numbered 7,789 souls, had fallen in 1872 to 6,904, and at the last census of 1901 to 6, 822 inhabitants, of whom 3,147 were Hindus, 3,654 Musalmans and 21 of other religions.
The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, and in 1901 out of a total of 1,712 houses, 1,204 were assessed to taxation, with an incidence of Re. 1-8-0 per assessed house and Re. 0-0 9 per head of population. The total income from all sources was Rs. 2,282. The police force consists of thirteen men of all grades, maintained at an annual cost of Rs. 900. Some Rs. 800 is devoted yearly to conservancy, and the average amount spent on local improvements during the last three years is Rs. 396.
Jalalabad is said to have received its name from one Jalal Khan, a Pathan, in the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb, and is still held by his descendants. About a mile distance from the town to the south stand the remains of the celebrated fort of Ghausgarh, built by the Rohilla Najib Khan. The fort is constructed of mud and is now in ruins and the land within its circuit is cultivated by Sawahs. Within the fort stands a mosque with ah enormous well built in the time of Nawfib Zabita Khan. During the rule of the latter the town was more than once sacked by the Mahrattas, and a Mahratta still holds a small revenue-free grant in Manikpur close by. At the death of Ghulam Qadir the site of Ghausgarh was deserted, and Theugh General Perron gave order that the fort was to be restored, the work was undertaken too late, for Lord Lake had already reached Dehli. The Pathans of Jalalabad remained quiet during the mutiny and one of their leaders did good services as tahsildar of Thana bhawan after its capture.
JANSATH, Pargana Jauli Jansath, Tahsil Jansath.
The headquarters of the tahsil is a considerable town lying to the south of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Miranpur, at a distance of 14 miles from the district headquarters. The site is lotv and the soil sandy, but occasionally mixed with clay. On every side of the town run distributaries of the main Gauges Canal of the Amlpshahr branch canal, which seem to obstruct the drainage and cause considerable flooding in the rains. Owing to the prevalence of fever, canal irrigation in the neighbourhood has been prohibited, and large drains have also been constructed by the Canal Department. The southern portion of the town is known as the Garhi, and forms a separate village surrounded by high brick wall. Besides the tahsil Jansath possesses a police- station, a post-office, cattle-pound, and an Anglo-Vernacular school, which was opened by private subscription three years ago; it is at present doing well and lias about 80 pupils on the roll. The dispensary was opened in 1890 and was at first located in a hired building, but the present structure was erected by Government in 1900. The town, which was formerly is a most in sanitary condition, has been greatly improved of late years, the streets having been paved and laid with masonry gutters. The population, which is 1853 was 5,589, had risen in 1872 to 6,117, and in 1901 to 6,595 inhabitants, of whom 3,151 were Hindus, 3,278 Musalmans and 78 of other religions. The principal inhabitants are the Saiyids, the descendants of Umar Shahid, Tihanpuri, whose family i3 mentioned in the district account. The original inhabitants are said to have been Jats and Brahmans. Markets are held in Jansath twice a week on Sundays and Wednesdays. The place was formirly celebrated for dyeing; bit the trade has decayed of late years. Dyeing in two special colours, jastai or lead colour and bottle-green, still gives the place some calebrity; the cloth dyed at Jansath is much prized in Muzaffarnagar. The only other manufacture of the place is that of papier-mach§; but this receives very little en
The town is adtniaistered under Act XX of 1856, and in 1901 out of a total number of 1,654 houses, 860 were assessed to from all sources was Rs. 2,116. The police force numbers thirteen men of all grades, maintained at an annual charge of Rs. 895. Somj Rs. 475 is yearly spent on conservan3y, and the average expenditure on local improvements for the last three years has been close on Rs. 300.
A large number of religious fairs are held annually at Jansath. The largest is that known as the fair of Nasrullah, which is held from the second to the third Friday in Jeth and is attended by some 3,000 persons. The Ghat fair, which takes place on the second day of the dark-half of Chait, is equally large; so also is the Puri fair,'held on the second Tuesday in Jeth. In the first week of Asdrh two smaller gatherings occur, the Ramlila with an average attendance of 1,030 persons, and the fair of Sha- kumbar Devi, of about half this size. In the last week of Bhadon a small fair is held in honour of the popular saint, Zahir Diwan, when about a Theusand persons of the lower classes assemble. Irregular fairs are held in the middle of Bhadon and Phagun, known as the Rath Jattra, but these are of little importance. The Musalmans of Jansath celebrate the Moharram and Chehlam, but these gatherings are of only local importance.
JANSATH Tahsil
This is the south-eastern subdivision of the district, lying between the parganas of Muzaffarnagar, Pur Chhapar and Gor­dhanpur on the north and the Meerut district on the south. To the west the boundary is formed by the Kali River, which separates the tahsil from the parganas Shikarpur and Budhana of the Budhana tahsil, while to the east the river Ganges constitutes the boundary between this district and Bijnor. The tahsil consists of four parganas, Khatauli, Jauli Jdnsath, Bhuma Sambalhera and Bhukarheri, all of which have been separately described in detail. It is composed of two sharply-distinguished tracts, the khadir of the Ganges on the east and the main upland plain of the district, the principal characteristics of which is the preva­lence of sand in the eastern half. Besides the rivers already mentioned, the upland is traversed by the eastern Kali Nadi or District. The tahsil is traversed from north to south-west by the main Ganges Canal, from which the Antipshahr branch canal takes off at Jauli. Besides these two main channels there are numerous distributaries, which render irrigation easy throughout almost the whole area.
Means of communication are on the whole good, and especially so in the western half of the tahsil. The North-Western Rail­way passes through pargana Khatauli with stations at Khatauli and Mansurpur, and parallel to it on the east runs the road from Meerut to Muzaffarnagar. The only other metalled road in the tahsil is that from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor, which is metalled as far as the bridge over the Ganges Canal at Bhopa; the remain­der is unmetalled as far as the banks of the Ganges, which it crosses by a bridge-of-boats at Matwali Ghat. From Ilahabas on this road an unmetalled road leads to Bhukarheri and Deoband in the Saharanpur district, with a branch running to Pur. Two other roads from Muzaffarnagar give access to this tahsil, one running to Jauli on the canal and thence continuing west through the south of Bhukarheri pargana, and the other running to Jansath, Miranpur and Mawana in the Meerut district. Through the south of the tahsil runs the second class road from Bhudhdna to Khatauli, Miranpur and Dharampura Ghats on the Ganges, where it is joined by the road from Meerut to Bijnor. The only other road deserving of mention is that from Khatauli to Jansath. The principal towns are Khatauli, Jansath and Miranpur. The first of these is an important market, which has grown largely since the construction of the railway. Miranpur is still a flourishing place, but a great deal of its trade has of Jate years been diverted to Khatauli. Besides these there are many large villages with small markets, which have been separately described.
The tahsil is administered as a subdivision of the district in the charge of a full-powered Magistrate of the district staff, assisted by the Tahsildar, whose headquarters are at Jansath. It forms part of the Muzaffarnagar Munsifi in the Sahfiranpur Judgeship. For the purposes of police administration there are stations at Jan­sath, Miranpur and Bhopa. Part of pargana Bhukarheri lays .within the supervision of the Miranpur station and the northern post-offices at Jansath, Khatauli, Bhopa, Miranpur, Bhukarheri Tissa and Sikri.
The population of the tahsil at the last census numbered 216,411 persons, of whom: 114,670 were males and 101,741 females. Clas­sified according to religions, there were 149,717 Hindus, 63,419; Musalmans, 2, 354 Jains, 709 Aryas, 153 Christians and nine Buddhists. The principal Hindu castes are Cnamdrs, who numbered 42,587, Jats 15,591, Sanis 12,888, Gujars 9,337, Khadars 8,091 and Brahmans 7,905. Besides these there are large numbers of Rajputs, who are chiefly of the Chauhan clan, Bhangis, Banias, most of whom are Agarwals, Kumhars and Rawats. The chief Musalman sub-division, numerically speaking, is the Julahas, who numbered 9,334 persons. Next to them come Sheikhs, who are chiefly of the Siddiqi and Qurreshi sub-divisions, and then the Saiyids, who are far the most important, as they still own the greater part; of the tahsil. Their numbers amounted to 7,039, more than half of whom are of the Zaidi sub-division and are connected with the great Barba families, an account of who has been given in the pargana articles and in the history of the dis­trict. Next to the Saiyids come Jhojhas, Qassabs and converted Rajputs, among whom are to be found numerous representatives of the Chauhdn, Tomar, Panwar, Bargujar and Rahtor clans.
With the exception of the trading population of Khatauli, Jansath and: Miranpur, the; tahsil is wholly agricultural; Cotton spinning and, weaving, which chief rural occupations, apart from agriculture, in the other tahsil of the district, are here followed; by much smaller numbers than elsewhere. The only trades calling for any remark are pottery, which is largely carried on at Miranpur, and the manufacture of glass, over 4,000 persons being thus employed Another noticeable feature of the tahsil is the comparatively, small number, of zamindars who are found in lesser, proportion to the tenants than in the other tahsils. This is chiefly due to the presence of the Saiyids, and the large estates held by them;
JASOI, Pargana Baqhra, Tahsil Muzaffaknaqar.
A village in the north-west of the pargana, lying at a short distance from the right bank of the Hindan River and about two Muzaffarnagar District, miles north of the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli, some thirteen miles from the former. Between the village and the river there is a stretch of low-lying alluvial land, and two miles to the west is the Kalarpur; distributary of the Jumna Canal from which the village lands are watered, alTheugh wells are also used for this purpose to a considerable extent. Jasoi is a very large village, the population in 1901 numbering 3,492 persons, of whom 2,295 were Hindus, 1,137 Musalmans and 60 Jains and Aryas. The village is held by a numerous body of pattiddrs, sotne of who arc Gautam Rajputs, but many of the shares have passed into the hands of Banias. The village possesses a post-office and a primary school. A small market is held here weekly.
JAULA, Pargana and Tahsil Budhana.
A very large village in the west of the pargana, on the south side of the road from Budhdna to Kandhla, at a distance of four miles from Budhana, fourteen miles from Shamli and twenty-two miles from Muzaffarnagar. There is an encamping- ground here on the route from Meerut to Karnal, north of the village and near the road. The village is surrounded on three sides by light friable loam and on the fourth by sandy bhur. The site is raised, but broken by excavations full of stagnant water, and is badly kept, especially in the Chamars quarter. All the houses are built of mud, with the exception of the fort where the agent of the proprietor resides. The population, which in 1872 amounted to 3,496 souls, had risen in 1901 to 4,691, of whom 1,766 were Hindus, 2,609 Musalmans and 316 Jains. Among the Hindus there is a large number of Kaehhwaha Thakurs. The Musalmans are a turbulent lot, and during the Mutiny joined the rebel cause, allying themselves with Khairati Khan of Parasauli. For some time they defied the troops sent against them, but at length, on the 14th of September, 1857, they attacked a force proceeding to Budhana, but were repelled with great loss. The village was stormed at the point of the bayonet, but the main body of the rebels escaped among the high crops, alTheugh about two hundred were left dead upon the field. The lands were confiscated and given in reward to Saiyid
JAULI, Pargana Jauli Jansath; Tahsil JAnsath.
A large and important village on the left bank of the Ganges Canal in the north of the pargana, at a distance of six miles from Jansath and nine miles from Muzaffarnagar, with which it is connected by an unmetalled road. This road crosses the canal by a bridge and continues eastwards towards Bijnor. From Jansath the Anupshahr branch canal leaves the main stream, and close to the head-works is the canal inspection bungalow. The village itself lies low and is very unhealthy. There is a school here and a small bazar in which markets are held weekly, on Fridays. Jauli is divided into five mahals held in zamindari tenure by Saiyids ; and pays a revenue of Rs. 3,300. The population, which in 1865 numbered 3,000 souls, had fallen to 2,107 in 1872, but at the last census of 1901 it had again risen to 2,579 inhabitants, of whom 1,253 were Musalmans and nineteen Jains. A considerable assemblage of Musalmans occurs here during the Moharram, and a similar but smaller gathering is held at the Chehlam festival on the 23rd day of the month Safar.
JAULI JANSATH Pargana, Tahsil Jansath.
This pargana occupies the central portion of the Jansath tahsil, lying between Bhuma Sambalhera on the east and Khatauli on the west, to the north and north east lies pargana Bhukar­heri and to the north-west Muzaffarnagar. The boundary of the pargana only touches the Meerut district on the south for a very short distance, as in this direction the parganas of Khatauli and Sambalhera almost meet, approaching within one mile of one another.      .
The northern part of the pargana is traversed by a broad sandy plain, which enters Jansath from the north-we3t and runs in a south-easterly direction into Sambalhera. This sandy belt has an average width of two or three miles, and is one of the poorest tracts in the district; alTheugh traversed by distributaries of the Ganges Canal, a large portion of its area usually remains unirrigated. Besides the main bolt of sand three lines of sand hills cross the pargana from north to south; a very clearly mark and then continuing through the middle of the pargana branches off into three lines which affect in a greater or less degree almost every estate in the extreme south. To the south of the sandy tract there is an area of rich land round the town of Jansath, which forms the best part of the pargana. To the south of this the land slopes down into a depression which forms the source of the Nagan or Eastern Kali River. This stream acquires a definite channel after emerging from the Antwara on the western border, and passes through four estates in this pargana before entering Khatauli. Its channel has been deepened and straightened by the Canal Department, resulting in a great improvement in the low-lying lands. In years of heavy rainfall much of the land gets saturated and some is thrown out) of culti­vation. Owing to the rise in the water level and the consequent unhealthiness of the town of Jansath irrigation has been prohi­bited in its. neighbourhood.
The main Ganges Canal enters the pargana in the extreme north and flows south to Jauli where the Antipshahar branch leaves the main canal. The whole of the pargana is irrigated from the various distributaries, with the exception of the portion lying to the south of the Khatauli-Miranpur road, which is almost entirely dependent on well irrigation. In the sandy tract, however, as has been already mentioned, much of the land is too poor to repay the expense of irrigation. The substitution of canal for well irri­gation has brought about a substantial increase in the prosperity of the pargana, especially in the central tract.
The total area of the pargana is 61,936 acres or nearly 97 square miles. Of this 48,301 or 79 acres per cent, were cultivated its 1901, while of the remainder 5,761 acres were barren. The cul­tivation has fallen off considerably since the settlement of 1892, probably owing to bad seasons, but there is a constant variation in this direction owing to the precariousness of the sandy tract. In 1841 as much as 43,740 acres were cultivated, a figure that shows but little improvement as far as the actual cultivation is concerned, but which leaves out of account the benefit derived in the case of the good land from the introduction of the canal system. The corns are wheat and tram in the rabi, but of the former prevalence of the sand and the general inferiority of the soil. In the kharif sugarcane takes the lead, followed by ju6r, bajra and rice. During recent years there has been a great falling off in the areas under pure wheat and rice, and in fact the cultivation of every single crop is appreciably less than that recorded at the settlement of 1892. The double-cropped area has also decreased from 18 to 11 per cent.
The revenue of the pargana in 1841 was fixed at Rs. 56,152 when the settlement was made by Mr. E, Thernton. In 1863 the demand was raised by Mr. Grant to Rs. 58,758, and at Mr. Cadeil’s settlement of 1873 to Rs. 81,110. At the revision by Mr. Miller in 1891 an enhancement of 20 per cent, was imposed on the pargana, the revenue being Rs. 98,840, which falls at the rate of Rs. 2-0-8 per acre of cultivation at the present time. There are altogether 63 villages in the pargana, which in 1892 were divided into 1G5 mahals, of which 117 were held in joint and single zamindari, 43 in pattidari and five in bhayachara tenure. Over two-thirds of the pargana is held by Saiyids, the principal families being These of Jansath, Chitaura, Kawal and Jauli. The remainder is in the hands of the Banias of Jansath and Tarla, the Sheikhs of Kheri Qurreshi and the Marhals of Karnal. The chief cultivating classes are Jats, Sanis, Rajputs, Gujars, Jhojhas, Saiyids and Sheikhs. The jats, as usual, occupy the best villages in the central tract and are also found in the southern well-irrigated portion. The Sainis are chiefly found in Kawal and the adjoining villages, the Jhojhas in the north-east, and the Gujars, Rajputs and Sheikhs in the poor villages to the south-west. The total population, of the pargana at the census of 1901 numbered 53,314 persons, of whom 28,226 were males and 25, O55 females. Classified according to religions, there were 33,640 Hin­dus, 19,101 Musalmans and 573 others, mainly Jains with a few Sikhs and Aryas. In 1872'the population numbered 37,097 souls, and since that time has gone on increasing year by year; in 1881 there were 42,509 inhabitants, and this bad raised to 45,562 in 1S91, since which year the increase has been most rapid. Besides Jansath there is no other town of any importance in the pargana. And for this reason have been separately mentioned. Weekly markets are held at Jauli, Jansath and Kawal, and from them grain is exported in some quantities to Muzaffarnagar and Kha­tauli. The manufactures of Jauli are important and have already been mentioned in the article on that to the railway line does not pass through any part of the par­gana, hut there are roads connecting Jansath with Muzaffarnagar and Khatauli, the two nearest railway stations of the North-West­ern Railway. The road from Muzaffarnagar continues east from Jansath to Miranpur, whence another road gives direct communi­cation with Khatauli. In the north of the pargana a road connects Muzaffarnagar with Jauli, and continues eastwards to the banks of the Ganges in Bhukarheri pargana. The only other roads of any importance are These which run along the banks of the canal. There are three canal bungalows at Jauli, Chitaura and Salarpur.
The pargana, as it now stands, represents a portion of the old Akbari pargana of Jauli, which in 1816 consisted of nineteen villages. Jansath was formed from Jauli during the reign, of Farrukhsiar. In 1854, at the re-constitution of The district, pargana Jauli Jansath, in addition to the thirty- three original estates, was increased by 29 villages added from the adjoining parganas of this district and pargana Hastina- pur in Meerut. As has been stated above, the bulk of the pargana is in the hands of three of the principal families of the Barha Saiyids, whose history is given in that of the district. The extreme north-western portion, Jauli and the adjacent vil­lages, is still held by a colony of Gardezi Saiyids, who appear to have settled here long before the Saiyids of Barha. The latter first took up their abods in the village of Dhasri, some eight generations before the reign of Akbar, and from these early set­tlers sprang the four branches, Kundliwals, Tihanpuris, Chhat- rauris and Jagaeris. The Saiyids of Jdnsath belong to the Tihanpuri branch, having migrated to Jansath from Dhasri, where they had remained for some time after the other branches had left their first home. At the present day, as it has always been, the pargana is the country of the Tihanpuris, for alTheugh representatives of the other branches are to be found in ft few villages; these were added to Jansath at a later date.
Among the latter may be mentioned the Saiyids of Kawal and Chitaura. The Tihanpuris rose to pre-eminence during the reigns of Shahjahan and Auraagzeb. Many of them attained high positions under the Emperors, the chief of them being Abdulla Khan and Husain Ali Khan, the two brothers known in history as the king-makers of Hindustan. After the fall of the Saiyids Jansath was sacked by the imperial forces, but in the struggle which subsequently casued they received back many of their estates from the Alahrattas and at the time of the British conquest they were persons of considerable importance. Unlike the Saiyids of Khatauli, they have gone on extending their acquisitions, but at the same time the properties have been greatly diminished by subdivision. The property held by the Nawab of Karnal in this pargana forms part of his Khatauli estate, and the villages which he holds here were formerly included in the Khatauli pargana. The Banias of Tarla, a village lying a short distance to the east of Jansath town, were once servants of the Saiyids of Jansath and acquired their property by means of their business as money-lenders. The Jats landholders of the pargana only held one village p to 1841, but since that date have acquired five more by purchase.
The Banias of Jansath took up their abode in this town after the sack of Khatauli by the Mahrattas and acquired most of their present property from the Banias of Talra, whose extravagance had forced them to part with a considerable portion of their estates. The Sheikhs of Kheri Qurreshi have held this village and two others from a very old date; but many of them have been obliged to part with their shares and they are all in reduced circumstances.
The transfers that have taken place in this pargana, as else­where throughout the district, have for the most part been due to causes entirely independent of the incidence of the Govern­ment demand and have been most) important in the estates owned by families which once held a high position.
JHINJHANA, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana.
The capital of- the pargana is a fair sized town standing on the left bank of the Katha river, at a distance of thirty miles from Muzaffarnagar. Through it passe3 the road from Meerut co Shamli and Karnal from which branch roads lead to Kairana, on the south and to Garhi on the east. The town itself is situated on the site of an old brick fort, but the neighbouring country is very low and often under water. There are extensive grove lands all along the eastern side of the town. Along the northern border passes the Bhainswal drainage cut, which empties into the Katha. Jhinjhana possesses a police-station, post-office and a primary school. There is a small bazar her in which markets are held weekly on Saturdays. The town was: formerly very dirty, but of late years most of the streets have been paved with bricks, which has resulted in a great improvement; the place is still, however, very unhealthy. The population has con­siderably decreased of late years, for in 1847 the total was 5,662 persons, which in 1865 had fallen to 5,334, and in 1872 to 5,116 persons. At the last census there were 5,094 inhabitants, of whom 2,771 were Hindus, 2,220 Musalmans and 103 of other religions, chiefly Jains.
The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, the total income from all sources being Rs. 1,716. There are 1,703 houses in the town, of which 1,052 were assessed to taxation, the incidence being Re. 1-6-2 per assessed house and Re. 0-4-10 per head of population. The town police force consists of ten men of all grades, supported at an annual charge of Rs. 705. Some Rs. 470 is spent yearly in conservancy and Rs. 260 in local improve­ments. Jhinjhana is the home of a family of Sheikhs who have resided hero from an early date. Several of their monuments are still to be been, the chief being the mosque and tomb of Shah Abdul Razzaq and his four sons, built during the reign of Jahangir in 1623 A.D. The domes of the mosque and tomb are decorated with blue coloured flowers of excellent workmanship; the oldest monument of the town is the Dargah of Imam Sahib, built in 901 Hijri. A fair is held at the shrine in the month of Moharram and is attended by some 3,000 persons. Another, but much smaller, fair-is hold in honour of Shah Abdul Razzaq on .the 23rd of the month Zi-l-Hijja. Both of these are Musalman in character and- celebrate, the ‘urs’ of the saints.
JHINJHANA Pargana, Tahsil Kairana.
Jhinjhana or Jhanjhana lies in the north of the tahsil, between. Bidauli on the east and Thanabhawan and Shamli on the east, to the south lies pargana Kairana, and to the north the Saharanpur district, Through the western half of the pargana from north to south flows the river Katha in an irregular course, passing within a mile to the west of the town of Jhinjhana and entering Kairana from the south-west corner. The land to the west of this river resembles that of pargana Bidauli, being a low-lying swampy tract of inferior soil and constantly liable to floods. The land is better in the north-west than in the lower course of the stream, but there is a large area covered with dense dark jungle. The whole tract is liable to inundations from the river and has suffered considerably from the spread of reh. East of the Katha we come to the uplands of the tract, a level plain of fair quality that improves in the south. In the northern portion the cultiva­tion is inferior, but this is chiefly due to the paucity of cultiva­tors and the want of irrigation rather than to the natural inferi­ority of the soil. The two large villages of Unn and Pindaura are of excellent quality, resembling the southern villages where the cultivation reaches a high standard. The eastern half of the pargana is served by several distributaries of the Jumna Canal, the chief of which are the Kairana, Bhainswal, Bunta and Hangoli rajbahas. The western half and a few villages in the extreme southeast are dependent on wells for irrigation; these can be everywhere constructed, alTheugh in the north, where the soil is somewhat sandy, the water is only found at a considerable depth. The total area of the pargana is 60,168 acres or 94 square miles. Of this 31,049 acres or per cent, were cultivated in 1901, a figure that shows a great improvement during the last forty years, for in 1862 the cultivated area was only 25,011 acres. This low figure was chiefly due to the depressed d state of Bidauli and the villages west of the Katha. The assessment of that part of the pargana had been very severe, and the considerable reduction that was rendered necessary has resulted in a largo improvement in this pargana. The barren area is large, amounting to 11,418 acres, but this leaves plenty of room for a further extension of Cultivation the principal crops are wheat and gram in the with a very small percentage of barley, and juar, maize, sue ar­cane and rife in the kharif. Sugarcane occupies over percent, of the cultivated area and is here grown much more expen­sively than in the western portion of the tahsil. To crop area is fairly large, amounting to 17 percent. Over 53 per cent, of the cultivated area is irrigated, and of this nearly thirds are watered from wells and tanks, and the remainder from the canal. The Katha is sometimes used for this purpose but only to a small extent. The wells are very numerous, numbering 983 in all, and almost all of these are of masonry, the pargana in this respect being apply inferior to Bidauli.
The settlement of 1846 was made by Mr. E. Thernton, who assessed the pargana at Rs, 63,056, which then fell at the high rate at Rs. 2 2-1 per acre of cultivation. The assessment worked well on the whole, with the exception of the villages beyond the Katba, where a great deal of land was thrown out of cultivation. In 1860, however, the pargana suffered heavily from, the failure of the rains, and aha famine was accompanied by a severe outbreak of cholera. The result was that the cultivate I area was foand to have decreased enormously on the settlement of 1862, so that the Government demand had to be reduced to Rs. 55,698, • alTheugh this actually represented a higher incidence of revenue on the cultivation. At the settlement of 1892 the demand was raised to Rs. 69,403, showing an enhancement of 17‘6 per cent., and falling with an incidence of Rs. 2-3-8 per acre of cultivation at the present time, The pargana contains 63 villages, which in 1892 were divided into 94 mahals, of which 71 were held in bhaiyachara tenure, thirteen by pattidars and ten by zamindars. The chief proprietors are the Jats, who are chiefly found in the centre and south-east. Bjsides these, the Sheikhs of Jhinjhana, the Rajputs in the north, the Gujars in the south-west and Pathans in a few scattered villages make up the bulk of the proprietary body, to which, as usual must be added the money­lenders, who have purchased a number of shares in different villages. The cultivators also belong to the same class.
The population of the pargana at the last census amounted to 41,897 persons, of whom 22,200 were males and 19,697 females.
Classified according to religions, there were 32,162 Hindus, 9,047 Musalmans and 68S Jain, Aryas and Sikhs. At the census of 1872 the population numbered S';,090 souls, and since that time there has been a constant gradual increase, the total rising to 37,661 in 1881 and 38,110 in 1891. Jhinjhana is the only town in the pargana, but is a decaying place. The villages of Unn, Qarhi and Pindaura have large populations and for that reason have been separately described, but they are all merely large agri­cultural communities. Markets are held weekly at Jhinjhana and Garhi, and post-offices are established in the same places.
The pargana is poorly supplied with means of communication, the northern half being devoid of roads. The road from Shamli to Karnal passes through Jhinjhana, which is connected by poor unmetalled roads with Kairana on the south and Garhi and Thana Bhawan on the east. There is a canal bungalow at Ala-ud- dinpur on the small Bidauli rajbaha of the Jamna Canal,
The pargana was known as Jhinjhana in the days of Akbar, but numerous changes have taken place in its constitution; the chief of these occurred in 1840, when five villages were added to the pargana from Thana Bhawan and fifteen villages from the neighbouring parganas of the Sahfiranpur district.
KAIKANA, Pargancuand Tahsil Kairana.
The headquarters of the tahsil are located in a considerable town in the centre of the pargana of the same name, situated on the main road from Muzaffarnagar and Shamli to Panipat, which is metalled as far as Kairana and for the rest of its course to the Jumna is unmetalled, crossing that river by a ferry at Mavi, some three miles west of the town. This road passes to the south of the main site, and is joined by the unmetalled road leading to Kairana from Kandhla. From the western side of the town a third road runs due north to Jhinjhana. Kairana lies at a distance of seven miles from Shamli and thirty-one miles from Muzaffar­nagar. The site is partly on the Khadir or low lands adjoining the Jumna and partly on the sloping bank which separates the khadir from the upland plain. A great number of the houses are built of brick and are much crowded together, the streets being narrow and tortuous. The bazar is clean and well paved, but the remainder of the town has an uncared-for appearance, especially the butchers’ quarter.
The importance of Kairana dates from the reign of Shahjahan, who gave the place in jagir to his physician, Hakim Mukarrab Khan. This man erected many buildings here and laid out a beautiful garden with a largo bank, which is still to be seen to the north-east of the town. He obtained excellent fruit-trees from all parts of India, and, according to the Taj-ul-Maasir, the mangoes of Kairana were long celebrated in Dehli. Mukarrab Khan constructed a dargah near the tomb of the famous saint Bu Ali Qalandar of Panipat, and died at the age of ninety. He was succeeded by his son Rizk-ulla, who died in 1668 A.D. This man, Rizk-ullah, had built the saint’s tomb some eight years before. The barddari built by Mukarrab Khan in his garden is now in a state of disrepair. The oldest building in the town is the mosque in the Pirzadan mohalla, built by the Emperor Islam Shah in 958 Hijri. Among other buildings of interest may be mentioned the Afghan mosque built by Shahjahan in 1082 Hijri; the mosque of Maraf Pir on the Shamli road, built by Aurangzeb in 1077 Hijri; the Darbar Kalan Mosque, built in 1051 Hijri by Sahiba Sultan, the mother of Sheikh Muhammad Fazal; and the mosque in the Khel mohalla, which dates from 1066 Hijri. The poet Sadullah, known as the Masiha-i-Kairanawi, was a native of this place and was adopted by Mukarrab Khan. A considerable fair, attended by some 5,000 persons, is held here in honour of Bu Ali, locally known as Khwaja Chishti, in Jnmad-us- Sani. Other small Hindu gatherings occur in Chait and Bhadon. The town lands of Kairana are very extensive, covering no less than 11,594 acres, and assessed to revenue of Rs. 18,884. They are cultivated principally by Jdts, and the eastern half is irrigated from the Kairana and Erti rajbahas of the Jumna Canal. Some 235 acres are under groves. The proprietors are the Sheikhs of Kairana, Banias and Jats. To the west of the town, on the banks of the Jumna, lies the village of Ramra, where the two largest fairs in the district are held. On the Dasahra in: Jeth and on the 15th day of the light half of Kartik- some 6,000 persons assemble from the surrounding country for the purpose
Besides the tahsil headquarters, Kairana .a possesses a munaifi, police-station, post-office, dispensary, an anglo-vernacular school, and a primary school for girls. The place is an enter pot for a consi­derable amouts of trade between the Panjab and the railway; There are fairly good bazars, and the market days are Mondays and Fridays. The internal petty criminal jurisdiction of the place in the bazars of a bench of Honorary Magistrates.
The population of Kairana numbered 11,470 souls in 1847, and since that date has constantly increased, the total rising to 15,162 in J853 to 10,953 in 1865 and to 17,742 in 1872. At the last census of 1901 the number of inhabitants was 19,304, of whom 9,766 were males and 9,538 females. Classified by religions there were 11,196 Jtln$alm6n3, 7.591 Hindus, 435 Jains, three Christians and 7.9 Aryas and others.
The town is administered as a municipality under Act I of 1900. The Board consists of twelve members’ of who nine are elected and three appointed by Government; among the latter is the tahsildar of Kairana, who holds a seat on the Board by virtue of his office. The income is chiefly derived from an octroi tax on imports, and in 1902 out .of a total income of Ra. 22,277, including a balance of R3, 6,014 from the preceding year, Rs, 13,181 were derived from this source. The chief articles of taxation were wheat, barely and other food grains, ghi and sugar. The only other receipt deserving of mention are These derived from the sale of manure, rents of municipal property and the fees from market and slaughter-houses, The .expenditure for the same year among amounted to Rs. 12,989, leaving a balance of Rs, 9,288, and the chief charges were conservancy Rs. 3,462, the upkeep of the municipal police Rs. 2,404, administration Rs. 2,436, and public works Rs. 974, most of which was devoted to the maintenance of the roads. The sum of Rs. 8J-4 was assigned to public instruc­tion, which deludes a grant to the District High School. The municipality supports the middle school, which is attended by 36 pupils, and gives grants to three lower primary schools for boys, with a total of 190 scholars on the roll, and a small girls’ school. The Board is still engaged in completing the drainage system of the town by filling up depressions and constructing masonry owing to the natural drainage of the town towards the Jumna, the only danger being the collection of stagnant water in excavations, the health of the town is generally good and the death-rate has decreased for the last few years. In the last year under report the ratio of deaths to each 1,000 persons of the population was 42 89.
Without entering into a series of statistical fair idea may be gained of the progress of the municipality during the last thirty years by comparing with the above returns These of 1874. In that year the total receipts amounted to Rs. 12; 794, including an opening balance of Rs. 3,886. The total income derived from octroi was Rs. 8,210, from which it is evident -that not only has the trade of the place grown largely during the period that has elapsed, but also that the municipal administration of Kairana has been very greatly improved. Another noticeable feature is the increase under the head of rents, which in 1874 amounted to only Rs, 53, which shows that the Board has not been idle in providing facilities for the conduct of business in the shape of improved bazar accommodation. The expenditure also in 1874 was proportionately smaller. The sum devoted to the upkeep of the police was Rs. 2,518, which is somewhat in excess of the average charges at the present day, but conservancy only absorbed Rs. 1,109, from which it is evident that the arrangements then prevailing for the disposal of refuse were of a much elaborate character than at the present day. Education also was equally neglected, the total expenditure under this head being Rs. 418, or slightly more than half of that of the present year,
KAIRANA Pargana, Tahsil Kairana:- The pargana forms the south-western portion of the tahsil, being bounded on the west by the Jumna River, which separates it from the Karnal district, on the east by pargana Shamli, on the south by Kandhla, and on the north by the Bidauli and Jhinjhana parganas. The pargana is intersected by the Katha River, which flows in a south-westerly direction through the western half of the pargana, and joins the Jumna nearly opposite to the town of Kairana. -the whole of -th6 tract between this river and the Jumna is subject to annual inundations and is marked by several swamps and watercourses, which do not dry up until late in the hot weather. The villages in this tract are in every respect inferior, the soil being indifferent and the cultivation careless. In the immediate neighbourhood of the Jumna the soil is occasionally overlaid with a sandy deposit, while elsewhere it is highly infected with reh. There are largo tracts of grass or tamarisk jungle, and on the higher ground we find tisar plains covered with dhak trees. The villages along the Jumna south of the Katha are all alluvial, but the khadir is of good quality and produces excellent winter crops. The khadir terminates in a high bank with a narrow strip of sandy soil, but beyond this we come to the uplands, which consist of a good fertile plain with a naturally rich soil and a high standard of cultivation. The eastern portion of this tract is irrigated by the distributaries of the Jumna Canal, the chief of which are the Kairina, Khandrauli, Kaserwa and Erti rajbabas. The greater part of the pargana, however, depends on well irrigation, which is carried on by Persian wheels, a system that is so inexpensive that it can be applied to the most inferior land. Wells can be constructed everywhere with the exception of two villages in the extreme south-west.
The total area of the pargana is 59,953 acres, or 92 square miles. Of this 30,979 acre3 or 51 per cent, were cultivated in 1901, a figure that closely corresponds with that recorded in 1848, but falls short of the total of 1872 by over 3,000 acres. • Of the remainder 9,208 acres are returned as barren, which shows that a considerable amount of land is still available for cultivation, alTheugh the soil is do doubt of an inferior quality. The prin­cipal crops are wheat and gram in the rabi and juar, maize and cotton in the kharif. The wheat is almost entirely sown alone, and barley is only grown to a very small extent. The propor­tion of cotton is larger here than in any other pargana of the district. Sugarcane on the other hand is neglected, and the area under this crop has fallen off considerably during late years. The double-cropped area is large, amounting to over 22 per cent. Irrigation extends to some 55 percent, of' the cultivated area, and of this one-third is supplied by the canals and almost the whole of the remainder from wells. The tanks and watercourses are occasionally used for this purpose, but only to a very small extent. As is only to be expected, the number of wells is very large, amounting to 923 in all, of which nine-tenths are of masonry. Id 1848 the pargana' was assessed at Rs. 49,570, which was raised at the settlement of 1862 to Rs. 52,371. At the settle­ment of 1891 the demand was fixed at Rs. 66,243, the enhance­ment being 26‘3 per cent., a higher rate than in any other parganas of the tahsil, and the incidence per acre of cultivation at the present time being Re. 1-11-0. The pargana contains 45 villages, but at the settlement of 1892 they were divided into 112 mahals, of which 53 were held on bhaiyachara tenure, 45 in single and joint zamindari and fourteen by coparcenaries bodies of pattidars. Gujars form the prevailing caste both among the proprietors and agriculturists. They are in a comparative state of prosperity owing no doubt to the lightness of the assessments. Of late year’s rents have risen considerably owing to enhanced prices and improved communications.
The population of the pargana in 1872 numbered 38,828 persons this had raised in 1881 to 40,602 and in 1891 to 41,389. The last census showed a still further increase, the population numbering 45,004 inhabitants, of -who 23,907 -were males and 21,097 females. Classified according to religions, there were 22,253 Hindus, 21,685 Musalmans and 1,066 others, the great majority of whom are Jains. The proportion of Musalmans is unusually high in this pargana, but more than half of them are to be found in the town of Kairana, Besides Kairana there are only two villages, Bhura and Titarwara, which have a population of over 2,000 persons. Kairana is the principal market and through it passes a good deal of trade with the Panjab, Through Kairana passes the road from Muzaffarnagar and Shamli to Panipat, •which crosses the Jumna at Mavi by a ferry. This road is metalled as far as Kairana. Unmetalled roads lead from the headquarters to Jhinjhana on the north and to Kandhla on the South-east.
 Kairana represents portions of the old Akbari pargana of the same name of its shape and size have been constantly altered by interchanges with other parganas, so that it is difficult-to ascertain correctly its position even at the commencement of. British rule. In 1846 it contained only 25 villages, and in 1840 received two villages from the Saharanpur district, and it also absorbed the old pargana of Titarwara, which comprised eight villages. The only items of historical or archaeological interest in the pargana are confined to the town of Kairana, under which they have been already described.
KAIRANA Tahsil.
This is the western subdivision of the district, being bounded on the east by the Charthawal and Baghra parganas of the Muzaffarnagar tahsil and pargana Shikarpur of tahsil Budhdna; on the south by the two remaining parganas of Budhdna; on the north by the Saharanpur district; and on the west by the river Jumna, which separates it from the Karnal district of the Panjab.
It has a total area of 296,953 acres or 464 square miles. The tahsil consists of the five parganas of Kairana, Jhinjhana, Shamli, Thana Bhawan and Bidauli, each of which have been separately described in detail with a full account of their physical character­istics, revenue, agriculture and land tenures. Looking at the tract as a whole, we find that it consists of two main divisions, the khadir of the. Jumna and the upland plain of the district. The former includes the whole of pargana Bidauli, the north­west of Kairana and the western villages of Jhinjhana. There are here many jhils and watercourses, which do not dry up till late in the year, but this tract possesses none of the extensive swamps and marshes that occupy so large a part of the Ganges khadir in Gordhanpur. Through the eastern portion of this tract flows the Katha river, which join a the Jumna near the town of Kairana, and further east the Kirsani flows from north to south through Thana Bhawan and Shamli. Besides these natural water channels the eastern half of the tahsil is traversed by the Jumna Canal, which runs through a tract with a naturally rich soil, but which has unfortunately obstructed the natural drainage to a rather serious extent. The only metalled road in that tahsil is that which connects Kairana and Shamli with Muzaffarnagar. Unmetalled road run from Shamli to Budhdna, Thana Bhawan and Jhinjhana; others run from Kairana to Budhana and Jhinjhana, and from the latter to Thana Bhawan. A road also goes from Kairana to Panipat in the Panjab, and another from Shamli to Karnal through Bidauli, but the country through which the latter passes is so low that in the rains it becomes impracticable for cart traffic. East of the Kirsani the village roads are fairly good, but is the west of the tahsil lo al communications are largely interfered with by flood channels, watercourses, jhils and rough jungle, while in the tract traversed by the old and new Jumna canals the cross­ country communications are the worst in the district owing to the lack of bridges on the distributaries and drainage cuts. Communications will be greatly improved by the construction of, the railway from Saharanpur to Shahdara.
The markets of this tahsil were at one time as large and well known as any in the district, but the construction of the North Western Railway has considerably lessened their importance. The principal towns are Kairana, Shamli, Thana Bhawan, Jalalabad and Jhinjhana. Kairana is the most populous, being the second town in the district; it has fairly good bazars and through it passes a large trade with the Panjab, Some business is done here in stamping cloth. Shamli was at one time a flourishing place, and is still a considerable centre for trade with the Panjab on the west and with Muzaffarnagar and the railway on the east. Thana Bhawan, Jalalabad and Jhinjhana are all decaying towns’ with more signs of prosperity in the past than of progress for the future. Besides these, the tahsfl cohtains a remarkable num­ber of large villages, all of which have been separately described.
The headquarters of the tahsll are at Kairana, where the tahsil- ddr and the Munsifare stationed, the latter being subordinate to the Judge of Saharanpur. For the purposes of police administra­tion the tahsil is divided into six circles, the station being at each of the pargana capitals and also at Chausana in pargana Bidauli. The circles are generally coterminous with the parganas, but the Chausana circle comprises portions of the Bidauli and Jhin­jhana parganas.
The total population of the tahsil at the last census numbered 224,679 persona, of whom 119,573 were males and 105,108 females.
Classified according to religions, there were 154,627 Hindus, 67,480 Musalmans, 1,742 Jains, 417, Christians and 413 Aryas. The principal Hindu castes are Jats, who number 23,612; Chamars, 22,836 ; Kahdra, 16,324; Brahmans, 14,562; Banias, 9,954 and Bhangis, 8,2847. Besides these there are large numbers of Gujars, Rajputs, who are mainly of the Pundir and Chauhan clans, Maliks, Gadariyas and Sanis. Of the Musalmans the most numerous are Gujars, who number 12,572, while next to them come con­verted Rajputs, who are mainly of the same clan as their Hindu brethren, Sheikhs, the bulk of whom are .Siddiqis, Juldhas, Pathans and Faqirs. Saiyids only number 1,896, and are less numerous in this tahsil than in the eastern portion of the district. Taken as a whole, the tahsil is almost entirely agricultural in character, but on account of the through trade from the Panjab we find that nearly 4,000 persons are engaged in commerce gen­erally; but the manufactures on the other hand are poorly represented. A large number of the people, amounting to 13,889 persons, are engaged in the manufacture of cotton and weaving while the tahsil also boast s of a fair number of workers in leather, al Theugh in this respect it falls short of Budhana. A noticeable feature in the occupations of this tahsil is the large number of Zamindars who cultivate their own land. Tenants are propor­tionately much scarcer here than in any other subdivision of the district, a result that is due to the number of large coparcenaries communities among the proprietary body. The only other occupation that deserves mention in this tahsil is mendicancy, no fewer than 7,630 persons deriving a subsistence from beg­ging, a considerably higher figure than in any other tahsil of the district.
KAKRA, Pargana Shikarpur, Tahsil BUDHANA.
A village on the northern border of the pargana, laying a short distance west of the road running from Budhana and Shahpur to Muzaffarnagar, at a distance of three miles from Shahpur and ten miles from the district headquarters. It is a flourishing place held by a large number of Jat proprietors, who are constantly quarrelling among them. Means of irrigation are, however, insufficient, as the village is situated in a small sandy tract that is beyond the reach on the Ganges Canal.- It pays a revenue of Rs. 4,800; The population in 1901- numbered 3,205 persons, of whom 514 were Musalmans-, Kakra has some trade connection with Muzaffarnagar, but there is no regular market. A tipper primary school is maintained hem
KAKRAULI, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil JANSATH.
A large village of the extreme south of the pargana, about five miles to the north-east of Jansath, to the west of the village turns the left main distributaries of the Gangas Canal, Which is crossed about two miles to the north by the road from Muzaffarnagar to Jauli and Bijnor. In the neighbourhood of the village there are several large tanks, the chief of which are the Dindihar and the Maniwala tanks, the population at the last census numbered 3,985 personas, of which 2,547 were Musalmans and 69 Jains. The pretailing castes are Saiyids, Mahajans and Jats, the proprietors being Saiyids, Who are in fair circumstances. A market is held herd twice in a week on Monday and Thursday, in which a considerable trade in grain is carried on by the Mahajans of the place, who also do some business in money-lending. There is an upper primary school herd. A Muhammadan fair is held herd annually on the 17th and 18th of Kabi-ul-awal, and is attended by about a Theusand persona. On the 8th of the same month the Chehlam festival is celebrated, but on a smaller scale.
KANAUNI pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A village in the north-east of the pargana, lying at a distance of five miles from Muzaffarnagar, with which it is Connected by the untnetalled road leading to Budhana, which passes about half a mile east of the village site. The village lands cover an area of 1,148 acres, of which over 990 acres are cultivated. The cultivators are mainly Jats, who hold the bulk of the land, the revenue being Rs. 5,180, there is a village school here. The population in 1901 numbered 2,508 persons, of whom 72 were Jains and 196 Musalmans.
KANDHLA pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana.
The capital of the pargana is a town lying a short distance to the west of the Eastern Jumna Canal at a distance of thirteen miles west of Budhana and twenty-nine miles from Muzaf­farnagar. Through it passes the road from Budhana to Kairana, which crosses the canal and the Dirla rajbaha, a short distance west of the former, by bridges. Along the eastern bank of the canal runs the road from Shamli to Baghpat and Dehli. On the north and each of the town there is a large area of grove lands, and in, the immediate neighbourhood there are many small banks and excavations in which the drainage water collects. To the east between the town and the canal the land lies low and is often under water during the rains. The more important streets are metalled and drained. Kandhla contains a police-station, post-Office, cattle-pound, a canal bungalow and a middle verna­cular school. The market day is Saturday. There is a consider­able bazar here, the chief trade being in grain, cotton and cloth; the latter is manufactured here by the numerous weavers. The Musalman quarter lies to the west of the town.
The population of Kandhla in 1847 numbered 7,062 souls, and this had risen by 1853 to 10,130, and by 1865 to 11,969 ' persons. In 1872 there were 11,026 inhabitants, and at the last census the total population was 11,563, of whom 5.512 were Musalmans, 5,400 Hindus, 624 Jains, 25 Aryan and two Christians. The town is administered as a municipality under Act I of 1900. The municipality was established in November 1873, and it is an affair is now managed by a board which consists of twelve members, of whom nine are elected by the rate-payers. The income is chiefly derived from an octroi tax on imports, and in 1902 amounted in all to Rs. 10,763, which included a balance of Rs. 2,272 from the preceding year. The octroi contributed Rs. 6,786, the other heads of income deserving-of notice being the fees from educational institutions, the realization from pounds and the sale of manure. . The total expenditure for the same year was Rs. 6,995, leaving a balance of Rs. 3,768. The chief terms of expenditure were conservancy charges, Rs. 1,264; main­tenance of the police, Rs. 1,142; the cost of administration, Ra. 1,385; and the upkeep of the roads and other public works, Rs. 520. Besides this Rs. 839 were expended on education, of which Rs. 338 were assigned to the support of the Anglo-Yerna- Cular School and Rs. 272 to the lower primary school for boys. The municipality also makes grants towards the district high school and to the district board school in the town. The princi­pal objects of taxation were building materials, drugs and chemi­cals and food grains. The drainage system of the town is now fairly satisfactory, its position on an elevation with sloping streets giving unusual facilities for effective drainage, and the general health is good. The death-rate of the year of record was low, the ratio per Theusand being 39'78, a figure that was exceeded by the births to the extent of 13 per cent. The municipality supports a public garden, a most flourishing institution, which is watered from the canal. The products of this garden are leased and bring in a yearly revenue of Rs. Some idea may be imagined of the progress of the municipality by referring to the figures of 1872 when the board had held the control of the town for less than two years. The total .income was Rs. 6,789, including a balance of Rs. 609 from the preceding year, and of this Rs. 5,294 were contributed from the octroi, which does not point to any material development to the trade of the town—a result that is to a large extent due to the diversion of commerce to Muzaffarnagar and Khatauli, which have a more advantageous position on the railway. The other heads of income, on the other hand, show a very great difference, the total receipts from all sources exclusive of octroi, being only Rs. 267, as against Rs. 642 at the present time. The expenditure for 1874 amounted to Rs. 5,396, but this was exceptional, as somewhat over Rs. 1,000 were expended on original works. The expen­diture on police was Rs. 1,780, which is considerably higher than that of the present day, but conservancy only absorbed Rs. 723, and the miserable pittance of Rs. 89 was allotted to education, whereas in the last year under report over 6 per cent, of the total income was devoted to this purpose.
KANDHLA Pargana, Tahsil Budhana.
This is the western pargana of the tahsil, extending from Budhana on the east to the Jumna River on the west, which sep­arates it from the Karnal district of the Panjab. To the south lies the district of Meerut anti „o the north the Shamli and Kai­rana parganas of the Kairana tahsil. The eastern half of the par­gana is traversed from north to south by the Kirsani River, which flows under high bank of broken and uneven ravine land and has practically no khadir. There are several watercourses leading down to the river, and the land in its neighbourhood is poor and unproductive. The uplands of the pargana consist of a level and fertile tract, but west of Kandhla the land slopes down towards the Jumna and is occasionally liable to become swampy and in places is infected with reh. The Jumna also flows between high banks and there is very little khadir. Parallel to the Kirsani runs the Eastern Jumna Canal, which passes a short distance to the east of the town of Kdndhla, and with its distributaries, the chief of which are the Malikpur, Kdandhla and Khandrauli rajbahas, irrigates almost the whole tract west of the Kirsani. The land between this river and the canal is exceptionally good and com­prises the best villages of the whole tahsil. East of the Kirsam irrigation is provided by the Yarpur and L ii distributaries. Well irrigation is met with in a few villages lying on the banks of the river and also in the strip of precarious villages on the banks of the Jumna. The total area of the pargana is 68,178 acres or 106 square miles. Of this 53,060 acres or 77 per cent, were cultivated in 1901, and of the remainder 22,785 acres are returned as barren or under water. The irrigated area in the same year amounted to 32,323 acres or over 60 per cent., and of this two-thirds were watered from the canal and almost the whole of the remainder from wells; the latter are very numerous and are chiefly of masonry. Since the introduction of the canal the cultivated area ha3 increased largely, for in 1848 it amounted to only 46,600 acres and by 1872 this had risen to 51,417 acre3. The principal crops are wheat and gram in the rabi and juar, maize, sugarcane and cotton in the kharif. The double-cropped area is large, amounting to nearly 23 per cent. The only noticeable features in the cultivation are the absence of rice and the large area under pare wheat, the latter amounting to over one-fourth of the whole cultivation. In 1848 the pargana was assessed to revenue of Rs. 1, 00,759, which rose in 1862 to Rs; 1, 11,410. At the settlement of 1891 the demand was raised to Rs. 1,63,190, showing an enhancement of 44'3 per cent, on the expiring revenue, and falling with an incidence of Rs. 3-1-1 per acre of cultivation at the present time, a figure that speaks well for the general excellence of the pargana.
The number of villages is 62 in all, and these at the time of settlement were sub-divided into 267 mahals, of which 140 are held on bhaiyachara tenure, 113 in single and joint zamindari, and fourteen by pattidars. To the west of the Kirsani there is a large colony of Gujars, who are chiefly found on the banks of the Jumna and in the north around Khandrauli. These people have greatly improved of late years and are now respectable mem­bers of society. To the east of the Kirsani the prevailing castes are Jats and Rajputs, both of whom hold their villages on bhaiyachara tenure. Besides these, a good deal of land is held by Banias, while Sheikhs and Saiyids hold portions of several villages, The number of transfers in this pargana has been small .compared with These in the other parganas of the tahsil, .The precarious village are few, alTheugh several estates suffer with years of heavy rainfall, but the damage done is sack seasons is not very serious. The cultivation is chiefly carried on by the proprietors themselves; the only other -cultivators who deserve mention are the Sainis, who are found in two villages on the eastern borders Parasauli and Fatehpur Kheri.
The population of the pargana in 1901 numbered 78,036 per­sons, of whom 41,694 were males and 36,342 females. Classified according to religions we find 54,949 Hindus, 19,550 Musalmans and 3,537 others, the bulk of who are Jains, but there are also a fair number of Sikhs and Aryas and a few Christians. In 1872 the pargana contained 63,859 inhabitants, and this has risen in 1881 to 66,869. During the following ten years there was a slight decrease, but since 1891 the growth of the population has been extremely rapid. The principal town of the pargana is the small municipality of Kandhla, and in addition to this there are several large villages such as Gangeru, Ailam, Lisarh, Phugana, .Kandrauli and Baral, all of which have been separately mentioned. Markets are held at Kandhla and Parasauli. The pargana possesses neither railway nor metalled road, but it will soon have the advantage of the light railway from Delhi to Saharanpur. An unmetalled road runs parallel to canal from Shamli to Baghpat and Delhi and a second from Kairana to Kandhla and BudhSna, crossing the former about a mile east of Kandhla. A small road connects Kandhla with Gangeru. The Jumna Canal is bridged at Kandrauli, Fatehpur, Kandhla and Nala. There are canal bungalows at Kandhla and at Loi near Phugana.          
Kandhla was a -pargana in the days of Akbar and in 1816 contained 41 villages. In 1840 it was united with the old par­ganas of Gangeru, which contained only two villages, and Phugana with seven -villages. During the mutiny Khairati Khan of Parasauli rose to some notoriety and seized the town of Budhana, from which, however, he was speedily ejected. The pargana contains nothing of “historical or archaeological interest.
KAWAL, Pargana. Jauli JAnsath, Tahsil Jansath.
A large village in the centre of the pargana on the north side of the road leading from Muzaffarnagar to Jansath and Miranpur at a distance of eleven miles from Muzaffarnagar and three miles from Jansath. On the east side of the village a drainage cut leads south to the Pimora distributaries of the Anup- shahr, while about a mile west flows the Katka distributary. The village consists of six mahals held in zaminddri and pattiddri tenure by Saiyids and Mahajans. The latter are in prosperous circumstances and carry on a considerable business as grain-dealers and money-lenders. Markets are held here twice a week, on Tuesdays and Saturdays, the trade being chiefly in sugar and wheat, which is exported to Muzaffarnagar; country cloth is also manufactured here. The population at the last census numbered 4,268 persons, of whom 1,987^ were Musalmaans and 172 Jains and Aryas. Saiyid3 and Sainis form the bulk of the inhabitants. There is a Government primary school here. A considerable gathering occurs here at the Muharram, as at many other places in the district, and about a Theusand persons assemble from the neighbouring villages. The Chehlam fair, held on the 20th day of the Muhammadan month of Safar, is larger, having an approximate average attendance of 2,000 persons.
KHANDRAULI, Pargana KAndhla, Tahsil Budhana.
A village in the north of the pargana on the right bank of the Eastern Jumna Canal, which is here crossed by two bridges leading to the second class road from Kandhla to Shamli, at a distance of six miles north of Kandhla and eight lies from Shamli. A short distance north of the village the Khandrauli distributary’s leaves the main canal, running in a south-westerly direction to join the Kairana distributary at Unchagaon. The village lands are well irrigated and fertile; they belong to a numerous and quarrelsome body of Gujars, who pay a revenue of Rs. 5,615. The population at the last census numbered 2,815 persons, of whom 842 were Musalmans.
KHARAR, Pargana and Tahsil Budhana. A large village situated in the extreme , north-west of the pargana, about two miles south of the road from Meerut to Shamli and seven miles from Budhana. The village lands cover a large area and belong to a numerous body of Hindu Jats, which pay revenue of Ks. 7,550. Irrigation is obtained from the Yarpur distributary of the Eastern Jumna Canal. The population in 1901 numbered 3,385 persons, of whom 470 were Musalm5ns and 58 Jains and Aryas. The place has trade connections with Shamli and Muzaffarnagar. A Government primary school is maintained here.
KHATAULI, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath.
The capital of the pargana is a considerable town of great commercial importance on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Meerut, which is here crossed by the road from Budhana to Miranpur, at a distance of 14 miles from Muzaffarnagar. Parallel to the main road runs the North-Western Railway, with a station at a short distance east of the town. To the west flows the main Ganges Canal which is crossed by the railway and the main road about a mile to the north, and also by the Budhana road about two miles to the south-west. Khatauli contains a police-station, post-office, road inspection bungalow; a well attended middle vernacular school and an aided Jain patshala, which is partly maintained by private subscription. It owes its prosperity to the advent of the railway, which has attracted a large number of enterprising Jain grain dealers. It first came into notice during the Bengal famine of 1875, when all the surplus grain in the district was exported from the station. The chief baz5r day is Friday. The town itself consists of two villages, Khatauli and Khataula. The place has much improved of late years owing to the paving of the streets and the con­struction of the masonry drains. There is military encamping- ground here t6 the east of the Meerut road and close to the railway station. The population, which in 1872 num­bered 6,409 inhabitants, had risen at the last census to 8,695 persons, of whom 3,525 were Hindus, 4,190 Musalmans and 980 of other religions, chiefly Jains with a few Sikhs and Aryas.
The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, and out of a total of 2,297 houses 1,010 were assessed to taxation in 1902, with an incidence of Rs. 8 per assessed house and Re. 0-4-1 per head of population. The total income from all sources was Rs. 3,119. The town police force, which consists of 16 men of all grades, is maintained at an annual charge of Rs. 1,095, In addition to this, some Rs. 845 are spent annually on conser­vancy and Rs, 525 on local improvements. AlTheugh the importance of Khatauli is of recent origin, the town is of some age, there is a large sarai built by the Emperor Shahjahan, as is recorded in the Persian inscription over the gateway. The only other buildings of any interest in the place are four large Jain temples. At one of them a Jain fair, known as the Unchhao Saraugian, takes place in the month of Qhaib, but the date depends,on varying circumstances., A very much larger gathering is the fair of Zahir Diwan, held for the first seven days of the dark half of Bhadon, when some 5,000 persons collect from the neighbourhood,
KHATAULI Pargana, Tahsil Jansath.
This pargana forms the south-west portion of the tahsil, being boundeu on the west by .the Shikarpur pargana of Budhana tahsil, from which it is separated by the west Kali river, on the north by Muzaffarnagar, on the east by pargana Jansath, and on .the south by the Meerut .district. It has a total area of 62,381 acres or 97 square miles.
The West Kali Nadi flows in a well-defined bed at a .consider­ably lower level than the upland tract, Ghats banks are usually marked by a series of sandy ravines running parallel to the river, alTheugh in some places there is a gradual descent. In the immediate neighbourhood of the river there, is an anarchy tract, which is generally poor and uncultivated, and is supposed to have suffered considerably from the construction of the Ganges Canal: in spite of the attempts at improving the drainage made by the Canal Department, the deterioration due to percolation is very marked. In the east of the pargana there is the Eastern Kali or Nagan, which enters Khatauli from Jansath and flows through five estates before entering the Meerut district., fn the lower portion of its course this river is generally Known as the Kali Nadi the western stream of the same name uniting with the Hindu on the south eastern border of the Budhana pargana.
The channel of the Nagan has been straightened and deepened by the Canal Department, a measure that has resulted in an im­provement of the drainage, but the villages in its neighbourhood are poor and the soil inferior. The Central tables and of the pargana consists of a level plain, the soil of which is a loam of excellent quality. In the north it is marked by a few sand hills, a continuation of These which are found in a much greater degree in the Muzaffarnagar pargana. Sand makes its appearance here and there throughout the whole tract, but, except in the north-east corner and to the east of the East Kali, it doe9 not affect the slope of the country, nor does it interfere with the character of the cultivation. In the south of the pargana' there is a slight depression which drains into the East K61i, and a little to the north are two other drainage lines, which used to carry off the surplus waters from the neighbourhood of Khatauli and were, until the construction of the canal, of some advantage to the cultivators. The Ganges Canal passes through the middle of the pargana. To the west of it the right main distri­butary brings water within easy reach of almost all the villages on that side, while the Khatauli distributary confers a similar ad­vantage on the villages situated in the eastern half. The only portions of the pargana which fail to obtain canal irrigation are a few of the worst villages in the neighbourhood of the- western Kali, and These lying on both sides of the Nagan which do not generally require it. Well irrigation is now chiefly confined to garden lands and to the estates lying in the south-east corner of the pargana.

Although the number of- masonry wells in this tract -is insufficient, earthen wells can be constructed almost everywhere at a little cost.
Out of the total area, 48,129 acres or 77 per cent were culti­vated in 1901, exclusive of 2,623 acres held in revenue-free tenure. Of the remainder 5,852 acres were returned as barren or under water. Nearly half of the cultivated area is irrigated, the great bulk being watered from the canal and almost all the remainder from wells. There has been a considerable increase in the cultivation since the last settlement, amounting to about 2,500 acres. The principal crops grown are this pargana are sugarcane, juar, maize, rice and cotton in the kharif, and in the rabi wheat and gram. The sugarcane is by far the most important crop and in every village the cultivators grow as much as they are able to manure. Rice is also a valuable crop, but its cultivation is somewhat precarious. Wheat is grown everywhere, and occu­pies nearly two-thirds of the whole rabi area. The only other crop deserving of mention is gram, which is very largely con­sumed in this part of the world; notwithstanding the large area which it covers, the local produce has always to be supplemented by large importations from the Panjab.
The pargana contains 88 villages, sub-divided in 1892 into 187 mahals, of which 102 were held in single and joint zamindari, 49 in pattidari and 36 in bhaiyachdra tenure. At one time almost the whole pargana belonged to Saiyids, the descendants of Abul Muziffar, the minister of Shahjahan and the founder of Muzaffarnagar. The extravagance of the owners and the fraud practised by their agents deprived them of almost all their estates which by degrees passed into the hands of the Nawab of Karnal, the Saiyids of Jaasath, various Government officials and the cul­tivating communities of Jats and Tagas. At the present time, after the Saiyids, the Banias are the chief proprietors, followed by Rajputs, the Karnal family, Jats, Bohras and Tagas. Of the cultivating classes the best are the Jats, who on the whole hold the richest villages, and who have by their industry and intelli­gence transformed several indifferent estates into good ones. They are chiefly found in the centre of the pargana. After that come the Rawahs and Sanis, both of whom are also in the first rank. The Tagas are chiefly found on the banks of the western Kali, as are also the Rajputs. The only other cultivating classes deserving of mention are the Gujars and the Musalmans. Occupancy tenants are very numerous in this pargana, holding considerably more than half of the total cultivated area. Of the remainder two-thirds are held by tenants-at-will and one-third is cultivated by the proprietors themselves.
The revenue of the pargana in 1820 amounted so Rs. 47,669, which rose in 1841 to Rs. 65,879, when the settlement was made by Mr. E, Thernton, and to Rs. 88,106 in 1874 at the revision by Mr. Cadell. At Mr. Miller’s settlement of 1892 ant enhancement of 18'8 per cent, on the whole pargana was imposed, giving total revenue of Rs. 1,08,642, which now fails at the rate of Rs. 2-4-0 per acre of cultivation. The introduction of canal irrigation brought about a very material change both in the cultivation and in the prosperity of the pargana, and this has been fully maintained of late years
The population of the pargana at the last census numbered 67,336 persons, of whom 35,443 were males and 31,893 females. Classified according to religions, there were 47,947 Hindus, 17,053 Musalmans, and 2,336 of other religions, most of whom are Jains. The increase in the population during the last; forty years has been large and constant. From a total of 49,267 persons in 1872 it rose to 56,215 in 1881 and 61,335 at the census of 1891. Out of the 88 villages of the pargana Khatauli alone is worthy of the name of town, but there are several villages, such as Mansurpur, Naula, Bhainsi, Rasulpur Sarai and Phulat, which have large populations. Khatauli is the principal market, but there are small villagebazdrs at Mansurpur, Rasulpur Sarai, Phulat, Jasauli and Kailaoda. The only manufacture of the pargana is that of blankets. Formerly there was a good deal of indigo produced, but with the decline in the trade most of the factories, the chief of which were at Mansurpur and Bhupkheri, have been abandoned.
Means of communications in this pargana are excellent. Down the centre runs the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Khatauli and Meerut, and parallel to is on the east is the North- Western Railway, with stations at Khatauli and Mansurpur, the latter being two miles from the village of that name. Through Khatauli runs the unmetalled road from Budhana to Miraripur, with a branch leading north-east to Jansath and leaving the main road to the short distance east of Khatauli station. The Ganges Canal is bridged at Rasulpur Sarai, Khatauli and Sitheri, where it is crossed by the Budhana road. There are canal bunga­lows at Bhainsi and Mohiuddinpur, and a road inspection bungalow at Khatauli. The pargana was constituted as such in the days of Akbar, and at present remains in practically the same form, Theugh eight villages were added from the neighbouring parganas in 1854. The Saiyids of this pargana are chiefly These of the Mansurpur branch, who, as has been already mentioned, obtained the whole tract in jagir during the reign of Shahjahan. Before the conquest in 1803 the Rajputs, whose head is the Chaudhri of Chandsena, had recovered eight of their old villages in the south-east of the pargana, partly by purchase and partly owing to the decline of the Saiyids’ influence. The Saiyids then still held eighty villages, but a few years later eleven of their estates were sold by orders.of court and four more by private treaty. Seven of these villages passed into the hands of Jat and Taga cultivating communities, and five were bought by the Saiyids of Jansath. The Nawab of Karnal in the early days of the nineteenth century obtained sixteen of the best villages belonging to the Khatauli Saiyids, who had been obliged to mortgage them to a Bania of Meerut. Since 1841 the Mansurpur branch has gone steadily to ruin, and it does not seem likely that it will ever recover. The only Saiyid proprietors, who now remain, with the exception of These of Jansath, are These of the Shahjahanpur family, a branch of the Mansurpur house. Another branch of the same family still owns a few villages of little importance, and the Sarfii Saiyids- retain half of their former possessions. Altogether, Theugh the- Saiyids have purchased largely, they do- not hold more than one- fourth of the whole pargana, and one-half of this is held by Saiyids who do not represent the original owners.
KHUDDA, Pargana Pur Chhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A considerable village in the north-west of the pargana about two miles west of the main road from Muzaffarnagar to Pur and ten miles from the former, The village lands are watered from the Bhaisani rajbaha of the Ganges Canal, which flows about a mile east of the village. It has a total area of 1,543 acres and is divided into three mahals held in imperfect pattidari tenure and assessed to revenue of Rs. 3,320. The population at the last census numbered 2,441 persons, of whom 1,310 were Musalmans, Chiefly Garahs, to whom the village partly belongs. Khudda possesses a primary school, but nothing else of any importance It- formerly gave its name to a pargana, which was amalgamated with Chhapar at a very early date. The place is said to have been founded by Nawab Abdulla Khan of Jansath, who built a fort here is the reign of Alamgir, but the place is probably older. After the fall of the Saiyids the village was included in the 63tate of Raja Ramdayal of Landhaura. On his death in 1813.it was settled with the resident Tagas and Garaha, but the former have lost the whole and the latter a part of their property, which has been purchased by the mahajana of Chhapar. The Garahs claim a Rajput origin and state that they are converted Bargujars. In 1825 the village paid revenue of Rs. 2,500, which shows that it was then is an equally flourishing condition.
KOTESRA, Pargana Charthawal, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A large mud-built village on the right bank of the Deoband canal, four miles north of Charthawal and eleven miles from Muzaffarnagar, The site is low and surrounded by tanks. A number of Banias reside here, who carry on a considerable trade in sugar, a small market being held weekly. A Govern­ment primary school is maintained in the village. Some decayed Saiyid families have their home here, and to the south of the town is an old fort which still belongs to them; a large brick- built place with towers at the corners surrounded by cupolas. The village consists of two mahals held in pattidari tenure assessed to revenue of Rs. 5,400. The population at the last census numbered 3,565 persons, of who 2,519 were Musalmans and 158 Jains; majority of the population are Musalman, Tagas. The greater part of the Saiyids’ possessions have passed into the hands of the Banias.
KUDANA, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana.
       A village situated among the ravines on the left bank of the Kirsani, at a distance of four miles south-east of Shamli and 20 miles from Muzaffarnagar. It is said to have been settled by Dholra and Mustana, the sons of Biba, a Jat of Bawai. It now belongs to a large family of Jats, who pay revenue of Rs. 5,865. The village is divided into a number of mahals chiefly held in bhaiyachara tenure. The population in 1901 numbered 3,483 persons, of whom 352 were Musalmans and 25 Aryas. There is a village school here.
LANK, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil Kairana.
A very large village in the south-east of the pargana, a short distance north of the road from Meerut to Shamli, at a distance of about six miles from the latter. It was formerly held by Bhela Jats, who are said to have come here from Lisarh under one Mahanand. It is now held by Gatwala Jats and partly by Banias, the total revenue being Es. 10,310. The population at the last census numbered 3,863 persons, of whom 578 were Musalmans and 28 Jains. A small market is held here, weekly on Thursdays, and a Government primary school is maintained here.
LISARH, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil Budhana.
Lisarh or Lisadh is a village on the left bank of the Kirsani river, at a distance of about five miles from Kandhla and nine miles from Budhana, with which it is connected by a small road that joins the main road from Shamli to Meerut. The village is in a flourishing condition, and belongs to a very numerous body of Hindu Jats, who pay revenue of Rs. 6,455. A small trade in grain and cloth is carried on with Kandhla and Muzaffarnagar. The population in 1901 numbered 3,694 persons, including 208 Jains. Jats form the bulk of the inhabitants. There is a primary school here.
LOHARI, Pargana Thana Bhawan, Tahsil Kairna.
A large village on the eastern borders of the pargana, a short distance north of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Thana Bhawan at a distance of about three miles from the latter and 17 miles from Muzaffarnagar. The place is said to have been settled by Chaudhri Dhandu, a Pundir Rajput, and some 200 years ago. A well in the- village still bears his name, and his descendants are said to be living in the village of Banchra in Saharanpur. This Dhandu rebelled against the kings of Delhi and was subdued by one Hasan Khan, a Pathan of Dudhli, from which the village acquired its second name of Hasanpur. The place is now held by Pathans and Banias, and is situated in the best, recruiting area in the district. More than half the village is held in revenue- free tenure, while the remainder is assessed at Es. 2, 200. The Miranpur population at the last census numbered 4,649 persons, of whom 2,535 were Musalmans and 40 Jains and Aryas. A market is held here weekly on Wednesdays. There is a post-office here, a Government primary school and also an aided indigenous school, besides the mosque and idgah there is a tomb of Hasan Khan in the village. The whole site lies within the circuit of an old fort still surrounded by a ditch which retains much stag­nant water, and is responsible for much of the sickness that generally prevails here.
MANSURPUR, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath.
A large village in the north of the pargana lying between Mansurpur and the right main distributary of the Ganges Canal at a distance of six miles due north of Jansath and eight miles from Muzaffarnagar, The village lies low and is unhealthy. To the west of the town there is a large jhil known as the Pilawala Tal. The place is purely agricultural in character and is sur­rounded by rice and sugarcane fields. There is a post-office here and a primary school. A small market is held weekly on Thursdays. The population, which in 1865 numbered 2,450 souls, had raised at the last census of 1901 to 3,432 inhabitants, of whom 1,304 were Musalmans and 198 Jaias. The place derives its name from Saiyid Mansur, the son of Khan Jahan Tihanpuri, who received the pargana in jagjr from the Emperor Sh£hjah5n. It is still held by Saiyids in pattidari tenure and is assessed to revenue of Rs. 4,900. A large portion of the village is held revenue-free.
The Mansurpur railway station of the North-Western Rail­way lies at a distance of two miles to the south-west of the village with which it is connected by a small unmetalled road, which continues beyond the railway to join the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Meerut.
MIRANPUR, Pargana Bhuma Sambalhera, Tahsil Jansath.
A small town situated on the junction of two unmetalled roads leading from Muzaffarnagar to Mawana and from Kha­tauli to Bijnor vid Dharampuraghat, at a distance of 20 miles from Muzaffarnagar and six miles from Jansath. Close to it on the west flows the Churiala distributary of the Anupshahar canal. Adjoining the town on the east is the large village of Kaithaura, which is separately mentioned. Miranpur contains a first class police-station, a post-office and a middle vernacular school, which has been recently opened, and is well attended; in addition to this, there is a small aided school in the town. Markets are held here weekly on Tuesdays- AlTheugh the inhabitants complain that their ancient trade has passed from them, the town is still of considerable importance. It is now fairly well paved and drained. At one time a large business was carried on here in rice, sugar, salt and grain, but the opening of the railway has to a large extent diverted the trade to Khatauli and Muzaffarnagar. Blankets arc made here to a considerable extent, and also a coarse blue pottery. Miranpur is the home of a family of Saiyids descended from Haidar Khan, the son of Saiyid Salar of Chhatrauri, an account of whom is given in the history of the district. During the Mutiny the town was held by Mr. Palmer at the end of the year 1857. On the 4th of February, 1858, it was attacked by the rebels from Bijnor, who burnt the station and killed three men. On the arrival of reinforcements from Jauli the rebels retreated, three being killed and two taken prisoners. The rebels expected to be joined by the Saiyids, but received little support in that direction.

The total area of the pargana is 57,619 acres or 90 square miles. Of this 37,827 acres or 65 per cent, were cultivated in 1901, a figure that shows a considerable increasing during the last ten years and surpasses that of i862jjy over 10,000 acres. Of the remaining area 9,770 acres are returned as barren, so that there is but little room for any great further extension of cultivation. The chief crops of the pargana are juar, rice, maize and sugarcane in the kharif, and wheat, gram and barley in the rabi, wheat by itself covering two-thirds of the whole area shown in the rabi harvest. The double-cropped area is large, amounting to 21 per cent.
The revenue of the pargana at Mr. Thornton's settlement of 184G was Rs. 56,244. At the following settlement of 1861 this was raised by Mr. Colvin to Rs. 57,081, which, though the net increase was small, actually involved a considerable enhancement owing to the decline in cultivation which had occurred during the years. At Mr, Miller’s settlement of 1881 the Tisang demand was raised to Rs. 67,805, giving an enhancement of 15 9 per cent, and falling with an incidence of Re; 1-12-7 per acre of cultivation at the present time. The pargana contains 56 villages, which in 1892 were divided into 78 mahfils, of which 42 where held in bhaiyachdra, 20 in single and joint zamindar and 16 in pattidari tenure. There are several revenue-freo estates owned by Sheikhs, Biluchisanl Mahrattas; the chief of these are in Jalalabad, Lohari and Jafarpur, and before the Mutiny there were very many more, no less than 7,563 acres having been confiscated for rebellion in this pargana. At the present time the principal proprietors are the Sheikhs of Thana Bhawan, Jdts in the west of the pargana and Rajputs in the east. The Jats and Raputs are the principal cultivators, while in addition to these there are considerable numbers of Sanis and Rawahs.
The population of the pargana at the census of 1872 numbered 4.1.928 souls, at the rate of 466 to the square mile. In 1881 the total had risen to 43,700 and in 1901 to 50,846 persons, of whom 26.723 were males and 24,114 females. Classified according to religions, there were 38,333 Hindus, 16,801 Musalmans and 212 others, .Jains, Aryas and Christians. There are two considerable towns in the pargana, Thana Bhawan and Jalalabad, both of which are decayed places with unimportant markets. The only other villages of any size or importance are Lohari and Garhi Abdulla Khan. Markets are held at both of these places and also at Qutbgarh. There are post-offices at Thana Bhawan, Jalalabad and Lohari, a middle vernacular school at Jalalabad and five Gov­ernment primary schools. There is a canal bungalow at Yarpur.
The history of Thana Bhawan has been given in the article on that town. The pargana is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari under the name of Thana Bhavan, and remained in the same state up till 1840, when the boundaries were re-constituted, 28 villages being transferred to other parganas and the remaining 44 villages being formed into a new pargana, to which ten villages were added from the Saharanpur district.
MORNA, Pargana BHUKARBERI, Tahsil Jansath.
A village on the south side of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor, at a distance of four miles east from Bhopa and fifteen miles from the district headquarters. It lies between the left main distributary and the Belra left feeder of the Ganges Canal. Up to the middle of the eighteenth century Morna was the prin¬cipal town of the pargana, but its proximity to the Pathan fort of Shukartar was fatal to its security. In 1759 and again in 1772 Shukartar wa3 invested by the Mahrattas, who made Morna their headquarters and on their departure reduced it to a small village, which it still remains. It is the homo of a family of Saiyids, who belong to the Chhatrauri branch of the Barha house, many of whom have left monuments in Morna. The chief of these is a large mosque built by Bibi Jhabbu, the wife of Nawab Husain Khan, during the reign of Muhammad Shih in 1725 A.D. For services rendered to Muhammad Shah the Saiyids of Morna received a grant of land in pargana Charthawal. There is a village school here and a small bazar. The place is celebrated for its wool and the blankets manufactured there from. The village is held in pattidari tenure and pays revenue of Rs. 1,225. The population at the last census numbered 1,971 persons, of whom 569 were Musalmans.
MUZAFFARNAGAR, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
The headquarters town of the district and tahsil is situated in latitude 29' 28” north and longitude 77' 44" east, near the left brink of the Kali river, at a distance of 33 miles north of Meerut, with which it is connected by a metalled road and the North¬-Western Railway. The latter passes to the east of the town through the civil station, the railway station lying a short distance south of the metal led road running from Muzaffarnagar to Banjo, Other metal led roads lead from the town to Rookie on the north¬east and to Shamli and Kairana on the westi. Unmetalled ro\ds branch off from the latter leading to Charthdwal and Thana Bhawan on the florth-west and to Budhdna on the south-we it. Besides these similar roads run to Sahdranpur, parallel to the railway, to Jansath, and to Jauli on the Ganges Canal, There are also many metalled roads in the town and civil station.
The town itself is closely built and crowded with many small streets. It is built on the high land above the Kali to which the drainage of the town is carried along artificial channels. The principal bazar is of recent origin and lies to the south of the town on the west side of the Merit roads. Markets are held daily, but the chief day is Saturday in each week. Owing to its position as the headquarters of the district and the presence of the railway, Muzaffarnagar has become an important centre of the wheat trade, and during the exporting season the bazars present a spectacle of considerable activity. The only manufactures of any note are the blankets made here; some years ago indigo was manufac¬tured to a considerable extent, but the decline of this industry led to its abandonment. The public buildings comprise the tahsil and police station, which are situated in the centre of th4 town. A short distance to the south is the sadar dispensary of the district, which stands on the west side of the Merit road. With these exceptions the other public buildings are all situated to the east of the main road from Merit to Rookie. Adjoining the road is the high school and close to it on the north the middle vernacular school, while a short distance south is the post-office. The civil station lies to the east of the town and extends beyond the railway. Besides the bungalows which form the residence of the European officers, there are the district courts near the railway station, the church, a short distance east of the post-office and the district jail, which occupies a square area beyond the railway, a short distance north of the Banjo road. Further east is the public garden, which is approached by the circular road that surrounds the civil station. The town was for long generally considered unhealthy, the people being constantly subject to malarias fever, which was due in part to the moisture caused by the canals and also to the natural unhealthiness of the place resulting from inattention to cleanliness and drainage. Much, however, has been done in this direction by filling up the many large excavations in the neighbourhood of the town, by paving the roads and constructing masonry drains, and by devoting more attention to conservancy generally. The new drains constructed by the municipality are continually flushed by a flow of water that runs down to the Kali Nadi. The result of these measures have been great improve¬ment in the health of the town, as is evident from the death-rate, which in 1902 amounted to 36'73 per Theusand of population, and even this figure is somewhat in excess of the average of the last few years. Muzaffarnagar is a town of comparatively recent origin. It was founded by the son of Muzaffar Khan Khanjahaa in the reign of Shahjahan about 1633 A.D. Previous -to that date there was an old town known as Sarwat, the ruins of which are still visible, lying about a mile to the north-east near the railway station. For some time it remained a place of little importance, but on the British conquest in 1803 it was selected to be the headquarters of a district. The population in 1847 numbered 7,264 persons and since then has constantly increased. In 1853 there were 9,646 inhabitants and in 1865 they had increased to 10,748. At the following census of 1872 the popul¬ation numbered 10,793 persons, and after that year we find a still more rapid development, the numbers rising to 15,080 in 1881 and to 18,166 in 1891. At the last census Muzaffarnagar contained a population of 23,444 inhabitants, and thus became for the first time in its history the largest town in the district. There is a very striking disproportion between the sexes, males number¬ing 13,640 to 9,804 females, a ratio that has remained constant for the last forty years. Classified according to religions, there were 12,847 Hindus, 9,519 Musalmans, 744 Jains, 129 Christians and 205 others, most of whom are Aryas with a few Sikhs.
The town was constituted as a municipality in November 1872, and is administered under Act I of 1900. The board consists of twelve members, of whom nine, including the chair- n an, are elected. The income is derived chiefly from au octroi tax on imports, and in 1902 amounted in all to Rs. 33,199, including a balance of Rs. 5,734 from the preceding year. Of this the octroi contributed Rs. 23,011, the other main heads of income being rents of sardis and nazfil houses and land, amount¬ing to Rs. 1,250, the sale proceeds of manure, Rs. 1,032, realiza¬tions from pounds, Rs, 497 and the tax on vehicles and animals, Rs. 428. The expenditure for the same year amounted to Rs. 22,414, leaving a balance of Rs. 9,095 in hand. The chief charges were conservancy, Rs. 7,176, the cost of administration, Rs. 4,144, the upkeep of the police, Rs. 2,889, medical charges, Rs. 1,894 and education, Rs. 1,556. Under the last-mentioned head come the grants of Rs. 300 to the district high school and Rs. 506 to the two primary schools in the town.
If these figures be compared with these of 1874 it will be found that both the income and the expenditure have almost doubled since that date. The octroi receipts in 1874 amounted to Rs. 10,480, which bears ample testimony not only to the growth of the trade of the town, but also to the improved administration which was considerably reformed two years ago. Rents have doubled, while the other miscellaneous receipts, which in 1874 ' amounted to Rs. 919, now exceed Rs. 2,000. The expenditure for the same year was Rs. 16,614, but of this over Rs. 6,000 was expended on public works, as against Rs. 1,053 of the last year of record. The most noticeable differences are These which occur under the heads of conservancy, which amounted to Rs. 1,606, and education, to which only Rs. 163 was then devoted.
Mention has already been made in the district account of the Horse Fair at Muzaffarnagar, an annual institution of growing importance that occurs in March. The gathering lasts for a week, and generally, is held from the 14th to the 21st of the month. It is attended as a rule by some 5,000 persons, and a brisk trade is carried on. At the Ramlila in the month of Asarh some 4,000 people assemble at Muzaffarnagar. Fairs are also held in Chait, an assemblage known as the Ghats fair, and in Bhadon, a much smaller fair, called the Chhariyan-ka- mela. At the old site of Sarwat an insignificant little, gathering is held at the shrine of Mustan Shah on every Thursday in Jeth
MUZAFFARNAGAR Pargana, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
The central pargana of the tahsil and district lies between Charthawal and Baghra on the west, and Pur Chhapar, Bhukarheri and Jansath on the east. To the east lies pargana Khatauli of the Jansath tahsil and to the north the Saharanpur district* It is of an irregular shape, being much wider in the south than in the north, where it has a breadth of barely two miles. The West Kali Nadi enters the pargana at Rohana in the north, and then taking a south-westerly course forms for a short distance the boundary between this pargana and Charthawal, and then turns south again, leaving the pargana near the south-western, corner. The khaddar along this river on the west is an inferior tract, which for some time has been gradually deteriorating. The bulk of the pargana lies to the east of the Kali, and on this side the khaddar is wider, but of no better quality. It is separated from the uplands by an undulating sandy ridge, beyond which extends a fairly level plain, the most prominent feature of which is the line of sand hills, which enters the pargana from Pur Chhapar and joins the ravines above the Kali in the extreme south. On both sides of this ridge are some bhur villages in which the sand continually shifts about from place to place. The best villages are in the centre of the pargana and are chiefly cultivated by Garahs. The soil between the main sandy ridge and the Kali is generally an excellent loam, well watered from the right main distributary of the Ganges Canal and its minor branches, the chief of which are the Makhiali and Basehra rajbahas. Almost the whole of the pargana is within reach of canal irrigation, as the villages on the high bank west of the Kali are traversed by the Lohari rajbaha of the Deoband canal. Well irrigation is practically unknown except in the immediate neigh¬bourhood of the town of Muzaffarnagar.
The total area of the pargana is 69,404 acres or 10S square miles. Of this 50,704 acres or 73 per cent, were cultivated in 1901. A figure that shows an enormous increase during the past sixty years, for in 1841 the cultivated area was only 39,585 acres, rising to 41,917 acres in 1862 and 46,477 acres in 1872. The irrigated area amounts to 41 per cent, of the cultivation, and this is almost entirely watered from canals, the AREA irrigated from.
wells being less than 350 acres. The principal crops are wheat, gram and barley in the rabi, and sugarcane, juar, rue and bajra in the kharif. The comparatively large area under bajra and barley is no doubt due to the large existence of sandy soil found in this pargana, while the presence of rice is explained by the abundance of flush irrigation provided by the distributaries of the Ganges Canal. The pargana contains 64 villages, which is 1892 were sub¬divided into 216 mahals, of which 128 were held by zamindars, 47 in bhaiyachara and 41 in pattidari tenure. Most of the vil¬lages appear to have been held at one time or other by Saiyids; but the largest landowners at the present time are the money¬lenders and the Nawab of Karnal. The Saiyids still hold shares in a large number of estates, the chief families being These of Bilas- pur, Ratheri and Bandhura, while a few inferior villages belong to the smaller Saiyids. To the south-west Jats hold two villages, and Rajputs and Tagas are to be found in the north along the Kali, but as a rule it is comparatively rare to find in this pargana villages held by small communities. At the settlement by Mr. Thernton in 1840 the pargana was assessed to a revenue of Rs. 60,817, This expired in 1863, and a few years later Mr. Mama raised the demand to Ks. 68,422, but this was cancelled by Government in 1867 and Hr. Cadell was instructed to make a fresh assessment, which was completed in 1873, the demand being raised to Rs. 82,160, with an incidence of Re. 1-12-4 per acre of cultivation, The pargana had undoubtedly benefited very largely by the progress of irrigation which had a very marked effect in increasing the cultivated area and improving the charac¬ter of the crops sown. More than this, the* introduction of the canal, according to Mr. Cadell, had a considerable effect in improving the character of the cultivators themselves, owing to. The increased inducement to industry and the ease, with which an honest livelihood can be obtained from the land, The pargana was originally known by the name of Sarwat from the village of that name lying about half a mile from the town of Muzaffarnagar, where the remains of some brick foundations are still to be seen. Shortly after his accession to the throne, the Emperor Shahjahan bestowed the pargana of Cataula and Sarwat In jagir on Saiyid Muzaffar Khan Khanjahan of Bihar, a village in the extreme south of the pargana, whose son took some lands from Sujru and, uniting them with Sarwat, called the new town Muzaffarnagar after the name of his father. The pargana was greatly extended by additions from Bhukarheri, Jansath, Baghra, Charthawal and Pur Chhapar, until it consisted of 44 villages inhabited by the Saiyids, followers of the jagirdars, and twenty more villages were added at the settlement of 1840. Some smaller changes subsequently took place in 1854, a few villages being received from Deoband in the Saharanpur district. Imme¬diately before the British occupation in 1803 the pargana was held at fixed revenue by the Nawab of Karnal, whose posses¬sions here were subsequently exchanged for grants to the west of the Jumna. The original 44 villages of the pargana were assessed in 1805 at Rs. 37,061, which was reduced in 1811 to Rs. 33,766, rising in 1818 to Rs. 36,434 and in 1830 to Rs. 42,013. The figures for each village show, as Mr. Cadell pointed out, “that the estates in this pargana have all along been moderately assessed. In many cases, indeed, the assessments would appear throughout to have been extremely low, even in These estates which' are cultivated by old communities which held their own throughout the long period of anarchy which preceded the British occupation, Elsewhere, the most remarkable features of its fiscal history are the enormous assessments which appear to have been levied from the strong cultivating communities, and the marked rise in the assessment of estates which, before the pacification of the country, were carelessly cultivated, if tilled at all. The estates, comparatively speaking, most heavily assessed throughout the period are These immediately in the neighbour¬hood of Mnzaffarnagar itself, and These in which the revenue has advanced least are the estates on either bank of the river which have not received canal water, or in which the opening of the canal has conferred the least benefit, or by percolation in the lower lands has caused the greatest injury. Taking the pargana as a whole, the enhancement of the land-revenue has been gradual and moderate; and the revenue of the twenty-three estates, the history of which is known from the beginning of the century, has increased only 40 per cent, in the fifty years which elapsed between the British occupation and the construction of the Ganges Canal, It is not improbable that the revenue assessed by the Mahrattas was not always very punctually levied, but there were collected, in addition to the revenue, some or all of no less than eleven distinct cesses, which appear to have had a place in the revenue system of our predecessors, Irregular demands, too, were no doubt more numerous and more important than they are now ; and, above all, the country was in a state of the utmost insecurity, was in constant danger from marauders, whose frequent incursions, besides indicting other and more important injuries on the people, seriously interfered with agriculture, by keeping the population massed together in towns and large villages, instead of being scattered in a manner necessary for effective agriculture in small villages and hamlets. Since the beginning of the century, too, improved communications have accompanied increased security, population has been largely added to, and prices, which were famine prices seventy years ago, are now little, if at all, above the average. Independently, therefore, of the construction of the canal, the assets of the pargana might have been expected to show a large increase, which successive reductions of the proportion of the rental taken by the State could not prevent’ Government from sharing.”
The population of the pargana in 1853 numbered 45,642 per¬sons. This rose in 1865 to 49,518, but in 1872 the total was only 48,888. The decline appears to have been due to the deteriora¬tion of the villages lying to the west of the Kali, which word then wiTheut the benefit of canal irrigation and suffered severely in year of drought, and also from several serious epidemics of fever. To the east of the Kali there was a slight increase, which appears to have been undoubtedly due to the improvement of the land resultant on the introduction of canal irrigation. In 1881 an enormous improvement was noticeable in this respect, the popu¬lation having risen to 61,165 persons, and in 1891 a still further increase was observed, the total number of inhabitants according to the census returns being 64,310. During the past ten years the rate of increase has exceeded all previous records, the popula¬tion being 79,417, of whom 43,807 were males and:35,01(y females. Classified according to religions, there were 49,461 Hindus, 28291 Musalmans and 1,665 others, of the last more than one-half were Jains, the remainder being Aryas, Sikhs and Christians in almost equal proportions, Besides the town of Muzaffarnagar, there is no place of any great size or importance in the pargana. The largest villages are Baghonwali, Datiana and bujrn, each of which have been separately mentioned. Muzaffarnagar is the principal market and the only other bazar deserving of mention is held at Behari. The pargana is very well provided with means of communication. It is traversed from north to south by the North- Western Railway, with stations at Muzaffarnagar and Rohana. From Muzaffarnagar four metalled roads lead in different direc¬tions; the first to Khatauli and Meerut, parallel to the railway; the second to Shamli, and Kairana, which crosses the Kali by a bridge and gives off unmetalled branches leading to Charthawal and Budhana; the third to Pur and Roorkee passing through the village of Baghonwali; and the fourth to Bhopa and Bijnor. Besides these, unmetalled roads run to Saharanpur parallel to the railway, to Jauli in pargana Jauli-Jansath, and to Jansath and Iranpur.

MUZAFFARNAGAR Tahsil.

This tahsil occupies the centre and north-eastern portion of the district, being bounded on the north by the Deoband tahsil of Saharanpur, on the south by pargana Shikarpur of the Budhana tahsil and pargana Khatauli and Jauli-Jansath of the Jansath tahsil. . To the south-east lies pargana Bhukarheri and to the east the Bijnor district; to the west lie the Shamli and Thana Bhawan pargana of the Kairana tahsil. It is composed of five pargana: Muzaffarnagar, Charthawal, Baghra, Pur Chhapar and Gordhan- pur, all of which have been separately described in detail. Besides the Ganges on the east the tahsil is traversed by the three rivers all running from north to south, the Hindan in the west, the Kali in the centre and the Solani in the east. Beyond the last-mentioned river the land is all included in the khaddar of the Ganges, while the remainder of the tahsll consists of high level uplands broken only by the rivers and a few ravines.
The North-Western Railway runs through the centre of the tahsil and haj two stations, one at Muzaffarnagar and the other at between the British occupation and the construction of the Ganges Canal. It is not improbable that the revenue assessed by the Mahrattas was not always very punctually levied, but there were collected, in addition to the revenue, some or all of no less than cloven distinct cases, which appear to have had a place in the revenue system of our predecessors. Irregular demands, too, were no doubt more numerous and more important than they are now ; and, above all, the country was in a state of the utmost insecurity, was in constant danger from marauders, whose frequent incursions, besides inflicting other and more important injuries on the people, seriously interfered with agriculture, by keeping the population massed together in towns and large villages, instead of being scattered in a manner necessary for effective agriculture in small villages and hamlets. Since the beginning of the century, too, improved communications have accompanied increased security, population has been largely added to, and prices, which were famine prices seventy years ago, are now little, if at all; above the average. Independently, therefore, of the construction of the canal, the assets of the pargana might have been expected to show a large increase, which successive reductions of the proportion of the rental taken by the State could not prevent Govemment from sharing.”
The population of the pargana in 1853 numbered 45,642 per¬sons. This rose in 1865 to 49,518, but in 1872 the total was only 48888. The decline appears to have been due to the deteriora¬tion of the villages lying to the west of the Kali, which wdr£ then wiTheut the benefit of canal irrigation and suffered severely in year of drought, and also from several serious epidemics of fever. To the east of the Kali there was a slight increase, which appears to have been undoubtedly due to the improvement of the land resultant on the introduction of canal irrigation. In 1881 an enormous improvement was noticeable in this respect, the popu¬lation having risen to 61,165 persons, and in 1891 a still further increase was observed, the total number of inhabitants according to the census returns being 64,310. During the past ten years the rate of increase has exceeded all previous records, the popula¬tion being 79,417, of whom 43,807 were males and 35,61Q females. Classified according to religions, there were 49,461 Hindu 28,291 Musalmans and 1,665 others. Of the last more than one-half were Jains, the remainder being Aryas, Sikhs and Christiana in almost equal proportions. Besides the town of Muzaffarnagar, there is no place of any great size or importance in the pargana. The largest villages are Baghonwali, Datiana and bujru, each of which have been separately mentioned. Muzaffarnagar is the principal market and the only other bazar deserving of mention is held at Behari. The pargana is very well provided with means of communication. It is traversed irom north to southby the North- Western Railway, with stations at Muzaffarnagar and Rohana. From Muzaffarnagar four metalled roads lead in different direc¬tions; the first to Khatauli and Meerut, parallel to the railway; the second to Shamli, and Kairana, which crosses the Kali by a bridge and gives off unmetalled branches leading to Charthawal and Budhana; the third to Pur and Roorkee passing through the village of Baghonwali; and the fourth to Bhopa and Bijnor. Besides these, unmetalled roads run to Saharanpur parallel to the railway, to Jauli in pargana Jauli-Jansath, and to Jansath and ranpur.
MUZAFFARNAGAR Tahsil.
This tahsil occupies the centre and north-eastern portion of the district, being bounded on the north by the Deoband tahsil of Saharanpur, on the south by pargana Shikarpur of the Budhana tahsil and pargana Khatauli and Jauli-Jansath of the Jansath tahsil. To the south-east lies pargana Bhukarheri and to the east the Bijnor district; to the west lie the Shamli and Thana Bhawan pargana of the Kairana tahsil. It is composed of five pargana: Muzaffarnagar, Charthawal, Baghra, Pur Chhapar and Gordhan- pur, all of which have been separately described in detail. Besides the Ganges on the east the tahsil is traversed by the three rivers all running from north to south, the Hindan in the west, the Kali in the centre and the Solani in the east. Beyond the last-mentioned river the land is all included in the khaddar of the Ganges, while the remainder of the tahsil consists of high level uplands broken only by the rivers and a few ravines.
The North-Western Railway runs through the centre of the tahsil and haj two stations, one at Muzaffarnagar and the other at Rohana. To the west of the Kali the main line of communication is the Muzaffarnagar-Kairana road, which is now metalled through¬out and has bridges over the Kali and Hindan. Two unbridged roads run north-west and south-west to Thana Bhawan and Budhana. East of the Kali, the main road from Meerut to Roorkee runs the whole length of the tahsil from south to north¬east, and a partially metalled road runs east to Bijnor. At Rampur, a village north of Muzaffarnagar, a second class road branches off from the main road and runs duo north parallel to the railway line to Saharanpur. Two roads run south-east and connect Muzaffarnagar with Jauli and Jansath, while in the north-east there are two more roads, one of which connects- Pur with Bhukarheri, and the other passes through Barla from Bhukarheri to Deoband. In the Ganges khaddar communications are almost entirely interrupted during the rains, and are never good at any time; a winding track from Pur gives a tolerably easy approach to the northern part of Gordhanpur pargana in the dry weather, and a road made by the Canal Department affords communi¬cation with roorkee.
Large quantities of sugar and wheat are exported annually from Muzaffarnagar, and the railway station presents an unusually busy appearance for some time after the harvest of these staples. The only manufacture of any note in the tahsil is the blankets made in Muzaffarnagar, which is the only town of any importance. There are two Act XX towns, Charthawal and Pur, both of which have been separately described, as well as the pargana capitals and all the larger villages. For the purposes of police administration there are stations at Muzaffarnagar, Charthawal, Pur, Gordhanpur and Titavi. The circles of these stations are coincident, with the boundaries of the parganas in which they are situated, with the exception of a portion of Gordhanpur that lies within the limits of the Bhopa police station in pargana Bhukarheri. The civil jurisdiction of the tahsil is in the hands of the Munsi of Muzaffarnagar, who is subordinate to the Judge of Saharanpur.
The total population of the tahsil in 1901 numbered 239,044 persons, of whom 129,505 were males and 109,468 females. Clas¬sified according to religions, there were 165,100 Hindus, 70,861 Musalmans, and 1,457 Jains. 894 Aryas, 544 Christians and 208 Sikhs. The most numerous Hindu castes are Chamars, who number 44,867; Jats, 21,453; Kahars, 11,383 Brahmans, 11,098; Gujars, 8,158; Rajputs, 7,647 and Tagas, 7,022. Besides these there are consi¬derable numbers of Gadariyas, Bhangis, Banias and Sanis. The Rajputs are mainly of the Pundir clan, while Chauhans and Gaharwars are also largely represented. The Banias are chiefly Agarwals. Of the Musalmans the most numerous are Julahaa, followed by Sheikha, the latter being almost entirely of the Qur- reshi and Siddiqi sub-divisions, who are found in an approximately equal proportion. Nest to them come converted Tagas, Jats and Rajputs and then Garahs, Pathaus and Saiyids. The last-men¬tioned are the most important as among them are to be found many considerable landholders. They are chiefly of the Zahdi sub¬division and claim to be connected in some way or other with the great Barha families.
The tahsil is almost wholly agricultural in character as is only to be expected from the absence of large towns. What trade there is, is chiefly in the hands of Saraugi Jains, who form the great majority of the 3,319 persons returned as engaged in commerce. The only other occupation deserving of notice, apart from agri¬culture, general labour and the supply of articles of food and drink, is the manufacture of cotton and weaving, which is followed by 13,298 persons Mention may be made of the large number of beggars, no less than 7,357 persons, deriving a subsistence from mendicancy, a figure which does not include, any of the members of the begging religious orders.
NAULA, Pargana Khatauli, Tahsil Jansath.
A very large village at a distance of three mile north-west of Khatauli situated on the edge of the high ground overlooking the western Kali nadi lies off the road and is only connected by village cart tracks with Mohiuddinpur and Bhainsi on the Muzaffarnagar road, and with Phulat. It contained in 1901 a population of 3,752 persons, of whom 2,400 were Hindus, 1,102 Musalmans, and 250 Aryas and Jains. The bulk of the Elinda population is composed of Tagas, who are part owners of the village, the remainder belonging to Saiyids. There are seventeen bhaiyachara mahals, paying revenue of Rs. 4,990. A Government primary school is maintained here.
PHUGANA, Pargana Kandhla, Tahsil budhana.
A village on the south side of the road leading from Shamli to Budhana, at a distance of six miles from the latter. It lies is liable to annual inundation during the rains, which often produces a high mortality from fever. The village lands art irrigated from a large swampy depression lying to the south and also by the Yawper distributary of the Jumna Canal, which the road crosses about two miles to the south-east. The village is in a fairly flourishing condition and is held by a large number of small Jat proprietors who pay a revenue of Rs. 7,385. The population consists mainly of Jats and Sanis with a few Jains. The total number of inhabitants at the last census was 3,236 persons. Adjoining Phugana on the south-east is the village of Loi, where there is a canal bungalow.
PINDAURA, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana.
Pindaric Jahangirpur is a large village about six miles north of Jhinjhana and two miles north-east of Un. It lies at some distance from any road, but village tracks connect it with Un and Garhi. To the east of the village there is a large stretch of waste land and smaller similar tract to the west which sinks into a large jhil in the shape of a horse shoe. It was originally settled by Jats of Jhajhar in Meerut, who are said to have replaced a former population of Brahmans. The proprietary body is mixed, but the largest element is Jat. It consists of a single bhaiyachara mahal, paying a revenue of Rs. 6,150. There is a Government school here. The population at the last census numbered 2,597 persons, of whom 413 were Musalmans.
PINNA, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
An old village on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli, at a distance of four miles from the headquarters, It was originally settled by Jats who came from Ludhiana, and is still largely held by their descendants, alTheugh some of the land has passed into the hands of absentee landlords. THE village lies between the Cbarthawal and the Lohari distributaries of the Deoband Canal, and is also irrigated from the two large tanks that adjoin the village site. The revenue now stands at Rs. 5,895. The population at the last census numbered 2 853 persons, of whom 218 were Musalmans. There is a village school here.
PUR, Pargana Pur Chhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
Pur, or Pur Qazi as it is generally known, is a small town in the north of the pargana on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Roorkee, at a distance of 16 miles from the district head¬quarters. It is also connected by unmetalled roads with Bhu¬karheri and Gordhanpur, the former crossing the Ganges Canal by the bridge at Tughlaqpur, and the latter running due east over the Dhamat bridge. Between the canal and the town flows the Basehra distributary of the canal. The town is surrounded by a number of good groves and contains some good brick-built houses. It forms one of the stages on the route from Meerut to Roorkee, but there is no regular encamping-ground, alTheugh ample space available to the south of the town. The centre of the site is somewhat raised, but there are many large excavations filled with stagnant water in the neighbourhood, and the drainage is defective, so that fever is often prevalent here. Par possesses a police station, post-office, a Public Works Department inspection bungalow and a middle vernacular school. Markets are held here twice a week on Tuesdays and Saturdays. The population, which in 1872 numbered 4,356 persons, had risen at the last census to 6,384, of whom 2,446 were Hindus, 3,876 Musalmans and 63 Jains and Sikhs.
The town is administered under Act XX of 1856. In 1902 out of 1,450 houses in the town 880 were assessed, the house-tax yielding Rs. 1,180, with an incidence of Re. 1-5-6 per assessed house and Re. 0-3-5 per head of population. The total income, including a balance of Rs. 107, was Rs. 1,440. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 1,389, and was chiefly devoted to police, Rs. 721, conservancy, Rs. 468 and local improvements, Rs. 200. A small local fair is held here yearly in Bhadon, and is attended by some 400 persons. An annual course of instruction for the artillery of the Bengal Command is held here during the cold weather
PURBALIAN, Pargana SHIKARPUR, Tahsil BUDHANA.
A large village in the north-east of the pargana, lying between the Kali Nadi on the east and the Lohari distributary of the Deoband Canal on the west, at a distance of about ten miles from Budhana and eleven miles from Muzaffarnagar. The village lands are very extensive, but the khadir of the Kali Nadi is poor and affected by quick sands. The population, which has grown very largely of late years, numbered at the last census 4,489 parsons, of whom 1,949 were Hindus, 2,417 Musalmans, and 123 Jains. Jilts, both Hindu and Musalman, predominate, but there are also fair numbers of RaTher Thakurs and Banias. The village is assessed to a revenue of Rs. 8,290. - There is an aided primary school here and a canal inspection bungalow. A rough cart track leads to Begharazpur and the main road from Muzaffarnagar to Meerut.
PUR CHHAPAR Pargana, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
This pargana lien in the north-east of the tahsil between Gor¬dhanpur on the east and Muzaffarnagar on the west, to the south lies pargana Bhukarheri of the Jansath tahsil, and to the north the Saharanpur district. The western portion lies in the Ganges khadir and is traversed by the Solani river, which flows underneath the high bank. The khadir of this pargana consists of six villages, all of which are precarious and are held on a short-term settlement; the land is very swampy and the cultivation is insignificant. At one time the channel now taken by the Solani was that of the Ganges, which is said to have left its course during the reign of Shahjahan and has continual by receded eastwards from that date. The Solani, which formerly joined the Ganges in the Saharanpur district, changed its course about 1852 and broke into the line of jhils, which represented the old bed of the Ganges. The result was that the land became waterlogged and this was increased a few years later by percolation from the Ganges Canal. From north to south all the fields have been injured, and the cultivation fell from 1,470 acres in 1841 to 1,836 acre in 1871, and since that date the decrease has been very much greater.
West of the Solani on the high bank there is a strip of infe¬rior land with a sandy soil constantly broken by ravines. In the extreme north-east of the pargana there is a broad sandy plain, which extends for some distance along the side of the Ganges Canal. From this a line of sand hills take off and passes in a south-westerly direction through the centre of the pargana and then turns south into pargana Muzaffarnagar. There are several other detached sand hills dotted about the pargana, but the soil between the main ridge and the Kali Nadi is generally an excellent loam, and there is another tract of similar soil on the eastern side of the sand hills. Although this pargana compares favorably with these adjoining it on the south, it must be regarded as distinctly inferior in natural fertility, and though it has excellent facilities for irrigation, owing to the prevalence of sand the proportion of irrigation to cultivation is less than usual. In the extreme north-western corner the pargana boundary is formed by the Kali Nadi, which has a low and deteriorating khadir separated from the upland by an undulating ridge of sand.
The total area of the pargana is 59,925 acres or 93 square miles. Of this 40,810 acres or 68 per cent, were cultivated in 1901, a figure that shows a considerable decrease, amounting to about 2,000 acres, during the last ten years, but which exceeds by some 3,000 acres the area cultivated in 1841, and is approxi¬mately equal to that of 1863. The barren area is large, amount¬ing to nearly 11,500 acres. The whole pargana, with the excep¬tion of the khadir, where irrigation is unnecessary, lies within reach of canal water. It is traversed from north to south by the Ganges Canal, by the right and left main distributaries, by the Basehra rajbaha with its two branches, by the Baaisani rajbahas and several minor channels. The total irrigated area in 1901 amounted to over 41 per cent, of the cultivation, and of this almost the whole was watered from the canal, welt irrigation being practically unknown in this part. The principal crops are wheat, gram and barley in the rabi, and rice, Bajra, sugar¬cane and juar in the kharif. The double-cropped area amounts to 16‘6 per cent. The rice is chiefly grown in the eastern half of the pargana and has increased considerably of late years, owing no doubt to the abundant facilities for irrigation. The prevalence of bajra is due to the presence of so much sandy soil. The revenue of the pargana at the settlement by Mr. Thernton in 3841 was fixed at Rs. 56,147. In 1862 this settlement was revised by Mr. S .N. Martin who raised the demand to Rs. 59,330. This assessment was? considered inadequate and cancelled, a further revision ’being made by Mr. Cadell in 1872, by whom the pargana was assessed at Rs. 69,800, which gave an incidence of Re, 1-10-4 per acre of cultivation. At the last settlement of 1892 an enhancement of 165 per cent, was imposed on the pargana, the demand being raised to Rs. 83,421, which now falls with an incidence of Rs. 2-0-7 per acre of cultivation. At the time of settlement the sixty-one villages of the pargana were divided into 180 mahals, of which 73 were held in bhaiyachara, 64 in zamindari and 44 in pattidari tenure. The proprietors of the pargana are chiefly Tagas, Gujars and Jats. The Tagas hold a large tract in the centre; the Jats own three villages in the north-west on the Saharanpur border and a great part of the large village of Basehra in the south; and the Gujars, who belong to the Landhaura family, are mostly found in the poor tract overlook-ing the Ganges valley. Pur and a cluster of surrounding villages are held by the Sheikhs of that town. Several villages belong to the Banias of Chhapar and shares have been acquired in many others by money-lenders. The cultivators are chiefly Tagas in the west and centre, while to the south and east Gujars and Jho- jas predominate. Chamars also take a large part in the cultiva¬tion of this pargana. The Banias of Chhapar are descended from persons who were formerly in the service of the Landhaura Raja.
The population of the pargana in 1872 numbered 33,026 persons, at the rate of 351 to the square mile. In 1881 the returns showed a very large increase, the number of inhabitants being 40,124. In the following ten years there was a slight decrease, but this was more than regained by 1901, when the pargana contained 44 150 inhabitants, of whom 23,482 were males and 20,688 females. Classified according to religions, there were 30,666 Hindus, 13,C '3 Musalmdn3 and 453 others, Christians, Jains, Aryas and Sikh The number of Christians, however, was only accidental, the great majority of them being British troops at the Pur artillery camp The only town of the pargana in Pur or Pur Qazi, as it is ecrimonly known. There are several large villages, the chief of which are Basehra, Chhapar, Khudda and barla, which are separately mentioned. Markets are held at Pur Basehra and Chhapar, and post-offices are established at the same places. There is a middle vernacular school at Pur, and village schools at all the other above men tipned villages, and also at Khai Khera, Qutbpur, Tughlaqpur, Tejalhera and Phalauda.
The pargana possesses no railway, but is well provided with roads. The chief is that from Muzaffarnagar to Roorkee, a metalled road which passes through Chhapar, Barla, and Phaludaand Pur. This is crossed at Barla by the road from Bijnor and Bhukarheri to Deoband, which passes through Basehra. Roads run from Pur to Gordhanpur and Bhukarheri vid Tughlaqpur. Another road runs direct from Barla to Tughlaqpur and thenco continues eastwards across the khadir to Gordhanpur. The Ganges Canal is bridged at Dhamat near Pur and at Tughlaqpur. There is a canal inspection bungalow at Barla.
Pur Chhapar was known as a pargana in the days of Akbar and formerly bore the name of Chhapar Khudda. The name pur Chhapar dates from the days of Qazi Nizam, who settled at Pur. In its present state the pargana consists of the old parganas of Pur and Chhapar, the pargana of Nurnagar or Tughlaqpur, as it was originally called, and eight villages which were added to it from Bhukarheri, Jauli and the Saharaa par district. This Qazi Nizam mentioned above was a Saiyid of jansath who appropriated the northern portion of the pargana in the reign of Farrukh Siyar. After the fall of the Saiyids this pargana was included in the Bawani mahal, and eventually fell into the hands of Raja Ram Dayal of Landhaura in whose possession it remained until his death in 1813. The villages were then settled by Mr. Chamberlain with The cultivating bodies, but at the next settlement the pargana was given out in farm. The oppressions of the principal farmer, Sheikh Kalian, led to the concealment of the farm and the village proprietary bodies were once more permitted to engage for the revenue. Owing, however, to the numerous changes that had occurred it was found that in many cases none of the original owners were left, and the instructions were so faithfully carried out that in one instance a settlement was made with The Chamars. Too Juts, too, who received soma of the best villages, had only emigrated into this pargana with) 1 comparatively recent times.
RASULPUR SARAI, Pargana KHATAULI, Tahsil JANSATH.
A village on the right bank of the main Ganges Canal, which is here crossed by a bridge, at a distance of nearly five miles north of Khatauli and eleven miles from Muzaffarnagar. To the west of the village (lows the Sikhera distributary of the canal from which the village lands are watered) It belongs to Saiyids and mahajans, and is chiefly cultivated by Saiyids and Sanis, the staple products being wheat and sugar. The village is divided into four mahals held in bhaiyachara and joint zamindari tenures, and pay revenue of Rs. 1,510. A small bazar is held here weekly, but there is nothing else of any importance in the village. The population at the last census numbered 2, 75 2 persons, of whom 1,349 were Musalmans and 128 Jains. Sanis and Chamars form the bulk of the Hindu population. No less than four annual fairs are held at Rasulpur. They are all in honour of Debi, and are each attended by some 1,500 persons. The first occurs on the 6th and 7th days of the light half of Chait, while another is held on the last day of that half of the same month; the others occur on the corresponding days of the month of Asarh.
ROHANA, Pargana and Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A village in the extreme north of the pargana and district, lying between the Kali Nadi on the east and the road to Deoband and Saharanpur on the west, at a distance of eight miles from Muzaffarnagar, Close to the village on the west runs the Bastam distributary of the Deoband Canal. The railway station of Rohana lies about a mile to the south-west in the village of Baheri, by which name it was formerly known. Rohana consists of two adjoining sites, known as Rohana kalan and khurd. The village lands are very extensive, covering 3,035 acres, and paying revenue of Rs. 5,153. The cultivators are chiefly Tagas. The population of the two villages in 1901 numbered 3,141 persons, of who 1,873 lived in Rohana khurd. Musalmans Shahpur numbered 256 as against 2,808 Hindus and 77 Jains. Rohana contains a post-office, school and a second class canal bungalow.
SAMBALHERA, Pargana Bhuma SAMBALHERA, Tahsil JANSATH.
This village, which gives its name to the pargana, lies at a distance of 18 miles from Muzaffarnagar and four miles from Jansath. It is situated about a mile and-a-half north of the road from Jansath to Miranpur and a mile east of the Antipshahr branch of the Ganges Canal in a sandy tract, but within reach of the Sambalhera and Majhera canal distributaries. It is the headquarters of a family of Saiyid zamindars of the Chhatrauri branch, an account of whom is given in the district notice and in the pargana article. The Saiyids live in a good brick house in the centre of the village. Their old fort is at Mahmudpur, a hamlet adjoining Sambalhera on the south; it is a brick structure with high towers at the corners. The village contains a tomb of Hazrat ibn Salar Husain, built in 777 Hijri during the reign of Firoz Shah. The mosque was built in the days of Shahjahan by Saiyid Makhan, the son of Baha-ud-din. Sambalhera possesses an aided school and a small bazar in which markets are held weekly. The population, which in 1872 numbered 2,018 souls, had risen in 1901 to 2,329, of whom 1,493 were Musalmans. The village is assessed to revenue of Rs. 2,800, and has a total area of -3,111 acres. A small assemblage, known as the Ghat fair, takes place at Sambalhera in the middle of Chait, but it is only attended by some 500 people of the neighbourhood. A much larger gathering occurs at the Moharram, while a similar Musalman fair occurs at the Chehlan on the 2l8t of Safar, when some 1,500 persons gather together here from the surrounding country.
SHAHPUR, Pargana SHIKARFUR, Tahsil BUDHANA.
This is the principal town of the pargana, and lies at a distance of thirteen miles from Muzaffarnagar and six miles from Budhana, on the east side of the unmetalled road running between these places. About a mile to the south is the large village of Shoron. Shahpur contains a police-station, post-office, canal bungalow and an aided school. Markets are t-ere weekly, and the bazaar is the most important in the pargana The population, which in 1872 numbered 3,371 souls, had 1 -01 to 4,101 persons, of whom 2,180 were Musalmans.
A considerable colony of Jains here numbers 326. The town itself is small and compact, and the village lands only cover 859 acres. They are held by a body of Sa";>. a revenue of Rs. 1,550. The people are engaged in tra rather than agriculture, and the place has some local celebrity its wares of brass and bell-metal. Shahpur is administration udder Act XX of 1856. There are 1,046 houses in the town in which 565 were assessed to taxation in 1902, the house-sax Rs. 900, with an incidence of Re. 1-9-6 per assessed and Re. 0-4-0 per head of population, the expenditure on police, Rs. 508 and conservancy, Rs. 276.
SHAMLI, Pargana Shamli, Tahsil KAIRANA
The capital of the pargana is a considerable been greatly decayed town lying on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Kairana, at a distance of seven miles from the latter and 24 miles from the district headquarters. Along the south western outskirts of the town run the road from Meerut and Karnal, while a third road goes due south to bhagpat and Dehli. About a mile east of the town an unmettaled road leaves the main road and runs to Thana Bhawan, a distance of 14 miles. A mile to the east of the town Bows the Jusra canal, and the whole place is surrounded by a network of the construction of which caused The water- level to rise consi¬derably in the neighbourhood, resulting in a great descrimination in the public health. The site is very low and the soil conatins a good deal of clay. To the north and east of the town, is the ganda nala, which has been connected by drainage, cut which the Kirsani. Inconsequence of the high rate of morality that followed on the construction of the canal, irrigated the neighbourhood of the town has been for some time prohibited. At the same time the streets have been paved and linked with masonry drains; measures havebeen taken to protest the wells from contamination, the result being that the healthy off the town has somewhat improved during the last few years. The only good street is the bazar, which has fine row of shops on either side. A considerable amount of trade is still carried on here, and the place forms an entrepfit between the Panjib on the west and Muzaffarnagar on the east. The future of the town com¬mercially depends largely on the construction of the projected light railway from Shahdara to Saharanpur. There is [at present a first class police station, a post-office, a sardi, two primary schools and an aided school for girls here. There is a military eDcamp- ing-ground here to the north-west of the town. Till recently, Shamli was the headquarters of a tahsil and munsifi, but these have been removed to Kairana. The town lands are extensive, covering 3,072 acres, of which 136 acres are occupied by groves which lie mainly to the north of the town. Francklin, writing at the end of the eighteenth century in his “Life of George Themas, describes Shamli as a town two miles in circumference, which “contains many handsome houses both of brick and stone. The streets intersect each other at right angles and have separate gates at their entrances, which at night are shut for the security of the inhabitants. At Shamli there is a large bazar and a mint where money used formerly to be coined. But the trade of this place, like many others in the Duab, is now much on the decline, and, with the exception of a few coarse cloths, the manu¬factures are at a stand. In its present state the villages attached to the pargana of Shamli yield revenue of about Rs. 50,000, Though in the flourishing times of the empire it was far more considerable.”
The population of Shamli in 1847 numbered 8,447 souls. In 1856 it had risen to 11,816, but in 1865'the number of inhabit¬ants had fallen to 9,728 and to 9,177 in 1872. The next twenty years show a very considerable decline, for in 1881 the number of inhabitants had dropped to 7,359 and to 6,403 at the following census of 1891. Since that date the population has recovered once again, for in 1901 the town contained 7,478 inhabitants, of whom 5,266 were Hindus, 2,093 Musalmans and 119 of other religions, moat of whom were Jains. Of the Hindus, Banias form the numerous castes. Shamli was formerly a municipality, but this has been abolished, and the town is now administered under Act XX of 1S56. It possesses in all 1,928 houses, of which were assessed to taxation in 1901, the income from all sources being Rs. 2,484. The house-tax falls with an incidence of Re.1-7-6 and Ro. 0-4-6 per head of population. The town police force numbers 13 men of all grades, maintained at an annual charge of Rs. 890. Some Its. 684 are spent annually on con¬servancy and Rs. 385 on local improvement. A fair, attended by some 4,000 persons, takes place annually at Shamli on the Dasahra. Smaller fairs, in honour of Burha Babu and Jogi Da, the saint of Bhukarheri, are held in the beginning of the month of Chait.
The original name of the town was Muhammadpur Zanardar. It formed a portion of the jagir granted by the Emperor Jahangir to his physician Hakim Mukarrab Khan. The jfigir was resumed in the reign of Bahadur Shfih, and the town- was thenceforwarda known as Shamli or Shyamli from one Shyam, a follower of the Hakim, who built a bazar here. In 1794) Shamli was the residence of the Mahratta commandant, who, being supposed to be in league with the Sikhs and to encourage their incursions was dismissed from office. Lakwa Dada, the Mahratta governor, sent a force against him under the command of George Themas, who first drove back the commandant into the town after a gallant defence and then stormed the place the same evening. The commandant and his principal adherents were killed, and Themas, after appointing a new governor, was in time to take part in the siege of Lakhnauti. In 1804 a battalion of the four¬teenth Native Infantry and a local battalion under the command of Colonel Burn were sent to protect the district against the Mahrattas. Colouel Burn marched up the Duab, but was overtaken by Jaswant Rao near Kandhla, and on the 29th of October his little force was completely surrounded by an overwhelming host of Mahrattas. Retreating to a small fort close under the walls of the town, he stood bravely at bay in an apparently desperate position, for the people of Shamli joined the enemy and inter¬cepted his supplies. He would have been compelled to surrender tad not Lord Lake's advance relieved him on the 3rd of Novem-ber. The Mahrattas disappeared southwards-in the direction of Meerut without striking a blow, and Colonel Bura pursued them as far as that city.
During the early part of the disturbances of 1857 Shamli was held by Ibrahim Khan, The tahsildar, who succeeded in opening up the communications between Meeurt and Karndi and kept his division in excellent order until about the end of August 1857. He then discovered that Mohar Singh, the principal landholder of the neighbourhood, who had hitherto assisted in keeping order, was in traitorous correspondence with Delhi, and called for assist¬ance. This was proved by the petitions written by this man which were found in the palace at Delhi, a course that had been adopted by his father in 1804. Troops were sent to Shamli with Mr. Grant in charge, and remained there for some time. On the 2nd September they attempted to beat up the quarters of Khairati Khan, of Parasauli in the Kandhla pargana, but were repulsed. This was the signal foi1 a general rising of the whole of the neigh¬bouring parganas; Jaula and Parasauli made common cause, and were reinforced by detachments from Bijraul and Baraut in the Meerut district, the former under Sajja and Bakta, son’s of the notorious Sah Mai. The fort of Budhana was taken and garri¬soned by the insurgents, and the communication between Meerut and Karnal vid Jaula was cut off. The Magistrate, Mr. R. M. Edwards, repaired to Shamli with his entire available force, but so conflicting was the information received by him that little could be done. He no sooner heard of a party of rebels being collected in a village and had arranged to go and disperse them than ocher intelligence was brought that there was a still larger gathering in another direction. He writes: — “The truth I believe to have been that there were considerable bodies of men collected in several villages whose intention was to concentrate their force, at a stated time, at one common rendezvous, and from there assume the offensive.” Mr. Edwards took advantage of his presence at Shamli to punish the turbulent inhabitants of Harhar, Heradh and Sikka, villages lying along the Jalalabad road, which had taken to plundering. News, too, arrived of a rising in Thana Bhawan on the same road, but considering the dispersion of the insurgents at Jaula and the recovery of Budhana of the first importance, he proceeded there with all his available force on the 14th of September. On the same d Mahbub Ali Khan and his nnnhiv/. Inaya'. Ali TCVmr. The garrison consisted of the tahsildar Ibrahim Khan, Bakhta war Singh, tahsildar of Thana Bhawan, ‘in troopers, 28 jail sepoys and 100 new levies. The tahsil enclosure was a place of consi¬derable strength, and both the native officers expressed their confidence in being able to withstand any attack. Ibrahim Khan (ought gallantly, bat the place was taken by assault, and one hundred and thirteen men were killed in the defence. “The ferocity of the Muhammadans, especially against Government servants, was shown by their slaughtering all who, on the place being taken by assault, fled for refuge into the mosque and temple which have always, hitherto, been regarded as sanctuaries. They were there to a man cut to pieces, even little children were slaughtered. The inner walls of both the mosque and temple, which are within the tahsil enclosure, were crimsoned with blood. The troopers of the garrison behaved splendidly. “These men, one and all, did their duty nobly, and in doing so submitted to every species of insult from these of their own faith among the assailants. The Musalman flag was waved before them, and when others deserted and found safety underneath its folds, they shot standard-bearer dead.” Of ten men of the 1st Panjab Cavalry nine were killed. It was not till after the fall of Thana Bhawan that Shamli was reoccupied, and from that time no further disturbances of importance took place.
SHAMLI Pargana, Tahsil Kairana.
This pargana forms the south-eastern portion of the tahsil, lying between Jhinjhana and Kairana on the west and the parganas of Shikarpur and Baghra on the east. To the south lie the parganas of Kandhla and Budhana of the Budhana tahsil and to the north Thana Bhawan. The tract is intersected from north to south by the Kirsani River, which flows through the centre of the pargana, while is the western half the Eastern Jumna Canal runs in a similar direction. In its general aspect it is one of the best parganas of the district. There are no precarious villages, the worst portions of the pargana being a somewhat inferior tract along the borders of Thana Bhawan in the north and a block of villages in the west on both sides of The Jumna Canal. In the lonnor the soil is poor and means of irrigation are scanty, while in the latter the soil has suffered considerably from saturation and is largely affected with reh. The villages along The Kirsani contain a good deal of poor land broken up by ravines and are wholly dependent on wells. The best portion of the pargana lies in the south east on the eastern side of the Kirsani, a fine level tract with a rich soil and unusually high rents. Similar land is to be found in a few villages on the southern border and in the extreme western corner of the pargana where it adjoins Kairana. The saturation referred to above appears to have been caused to a great extent by the canal, which, with its distributaries, has seriously interfered with the natural drainage of the country, the result being very detrimental to cultivation and also to health. In consequence of this, irrigation from the canal has been stopped in the neighbourhood of Shamli and an extensive drainage system has been undertaken by the Canal department. The chief canal distributaries are the Yarpur, Kaserwa and Erti rajbahas in the west and centre of the pargana.
The total area of the pargana is 64,814 acres or 101 square miles. Of this 47,349 acres or 73 per cent, were cultivated in 1901, showing an increase of nearly 1,300 acres during the last ten years and nearly 1,900 acres since 1862. The barren area amounts to 10,187 acres, which leaves but little room for further cultivation. About 56 per cent, of the cultivated area is irriga¬ted, and of this slightly more than half is watered from the canal and almost the whole of the remainder from wells, the great majority of which are of masonry. There are a large number of small tanks in the pargana, but these are only used for irrigation to a very small extent, the total area thus watered being only less than 300 acres. The principal crops are wheat and gram in the rabi and juar, maize, sugarcane and cotton in the kharif. Barley is very little grown and has decreased in area during recent years.
The revenue of the pargana in 1848 amounted to Rs. 1, 20,316 which fell at the rate of Rs. 2-10-0 per acre of cultivation. At the following settlement of 1862 by Mr. A. Colvin a slight reduction was made, although the incidence was raised by three pies per acre on account of the decrease in the cultivated area, the demand being fixed at Rs. 1, 20,057. During the past thirty years the pargana has made a considerable improvement owing to beneficial alterations in the canal system, improved means of communica¬tion, and enhanced prices. Consequently, at the settlement of 1892 the demand was fixed at) Rs. 1,54,408, showing an increase of 25‘G per cent, over the expiring revenue, and now falling at The rate of Rs. 3-3-10 per acre of cultivation, a higher rate than is to be found in any other pargana of the district. The pargana contains sixty villages, which at the time of settlement were divided into 299 mahals, of which 214 were held on bhaiyachara tenure, eighty by zamindars and five by coparcenaries bodies of pattidars. The proprietary body has suffered considerably from the sub-divisions that have followed on an increase in the popula¬tion, and a considerable amount of the pargana has fallen into the hands of The money-lenders, who have also acquired a number of Rajput estates that were confiscated it in the mutiny on account of the part taken by the proprietors in the attack on the tahsil. At present the great bulk of the pargana belongs to Jats. There are one or two Rajput villages in the north on the Thana Bhawan borders, while Gujars hold a few estates in the south and south¬west. The remainder is hold by Biluchis, Sheikhzadas and Saiyids, while two small estates are held by Brahmans.
The population of the pargana according to the census of 1872 numbered 55,876-souls. Since that time there has been a con¬stant and steady increase, the total rising to 56,182 in 1881 and 57,060 in 1891. During the last ten years the increase has been very much more rapid, the total at the last census being 67210 inhabitants, of whom 36,094 were males and 31,116, females. Classified according to religions, there were 54,478 Hindus, 12,229 musalmans and 503 of other religions, Aryas, Jains, Sikhs and Christians. Shamli is the only place in the pargana which can be called a town, but there are many large villages, the chief of which are Lank, Kudana, Banat, and Bhains- wal, Bhaju, Babri and Balwa, all of which have been separately mentioned. The chief market is at Shamli, which is still a considerable centre of trade with the Panjab on the west and with Muzaffarnagar and the railway on the east. Smaller bazars tire held at Babri, Bhaju and Banat. The pargana is well provided with means of communication. Through it from east to west runs the metalled road from Muzaf¬farnagar to Shamli and Kairana, this crosses the Kirsani and the canal by bridges. Through Shamli passes the second-class road from Meerut to Karnal, while other roads lead to Baghpat and Dehli on the south and to Thana Bhawan on the north-east. There is a road inspection bungalow at Banat, and canal bunga¬lows at Bhainswal and Kheri Karmun, a village lying a mile south of Shamli.
Shamli was formed out of the old pargana of Kairana during the reign of Jahaagir, who bestowed it in idgir on Hakim Mukar¬rab Khan. The property remained in his family until the reign of Bahadur Shah, by whom it was resumed. From that date it formed a separate tappa which afterwards acquired the name of pargana. In 1816 it comprised 21 villages, and in 1840 Shamli was amalgamated with the old pargana of Banat, and also received three villages from Thana Bhawan and one village from pargana Nakur in the Saharanpur district.
SHIKAPUR, Pargana SHIKARPUR Tahsil BUDHANA.
The capital of the pargana is an old town, now very greatly decayed, on the right bank of the Hindan River, at a distance of six miles north of Budhana. It was formerly a flourishing place and contains several old houses, including a mosque which is said to have been built in the reign of Shahjahan. The Taga zamindars are knowing very reduced circumstances and the population has fallen off, the town having a desolate appearance and resem¬bling an abandoned fortress. The population at the last census was 1,616 persons, of whom 788 were Musalmans; the only prosperous family is that of Jai Dayal, a Brahman. The village is assessed to revenue of Rs. 3,800. There is a Government primary school here and a post-office, but nothing else of any importance. The village lies off the road, being only connected by rough part tracks with Budhana, Shahpur and Sisauli.
This is the most northerly pargana of the tahsil, being bounded on the south by Budhana, on the north by the Baghra and Muzaffarnagar parganas of the Muzaffarnagar tahsil, and on the west by Shamli. To the east and south-east lies the Khatauli pargana of the Jansath tahsil from which it is separated by the western Kali Nadi. Through the western half of the pargana the river Hindan flows from north to south, passing the village of Shikarpur from which the pargana takes its name. Both the Hindan and the Kali have low banks with an extensive stretch of low lying land on either side, but they retain their course with very slight variations from year to year. The khadir of The Hindan, Though varying in quality, is generally productive, but that of the Kali Nadi is much less fertile, and has in many places been seriously injured by the spread of marsh and reh, much of the low land near the river being occupied by beds of reeds and grass jungle. Above the khadir of the two rivers is a tract of undulating land broken at intervals by ravines and drainage cuts from the uplands, and in this tract the soil is very poor and devoid of irrigation. The high lying tract between the two rivers consists for the most part of a loam of excellent quality, but this is varied by two belts of sand which run southwards through Mubarakpur towards the khadir of the Kali. This portion of the pargana is irrigated by the Deoband canal, which, with its two distributaries the Charthawal and Lohari rajbahas, brings water within reach of most of the villages. In the northern part of the pargana the villages on either side of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Budha¬na are chiefly watered from wells, which can be easily constructed almost everywhere. The tract west of the Hindan is on the whole excellent, the khadir is good, and the only inferior soils are to be found on the slopes from the uplands. This part of the pargana depends chiefly on well irrigation, but it also derives some benefit from the Kalarpur rajbaha of the Eastern Jumna Canal. Before the introduction of canal irrigation to this tract there was an ample supply both from masonry and earthen wells, so that the canal seemed to be hardly required here.
The total area of the pargana is 64,105 acres, or roughly 100 square miles. Of this 48,713 acres or 76 per cent, were cultiva¬ted in 1901, a figure that shows only a slight increase over that recorded in 1872. The bulk of the cultivation consists of good loam soil, of which one-third oontftina a considerable proportion of sand but the actual better area is very small, covering little over 3,000 acres. Of the uncultivated land 7,232 acres are returned as barren. The irrigated area amounts to somewhat over forty per cent., of which more than half is watered from the canals, and almost the whole of the remainder from wells, two-thirds of which are of masonry. The principal crops are wheat, gram and barley in the rabi and juar, sugarcane and maize in the kharif, with a fair amount of cotton. On the whole wheat is the moat important crop and is chiefly sown alone, about one-fourth only being mixed with barley.
The pargana was settled in 1848 by Sir H. M. Elliot and Mr. E. Thernton, the revenue being fixed at Ra. 1, 06,052, with an incidence of Rs. 2-6-7 per acre of cultivation. This assessment was very heavy and appears to have been chiefly due to the fact that many of the estates were held by wealthy persons or commu¬nities. The settlement was followed by a great number of trans¬fers, amounting to 26 per cent, of the total area. At the settle¬ment of 1862 the revenue was lowered to Rs. 1, 05,173, which involved a very considerable reduction, inasmuch as the culti¬vated area had largely increased. At the last settlement of 1891 it was found possible to take an enhancement of thirty per cent, on the pargana, the demand being raised to Rs. 1, 41,206, with an incidence of Rs. 2-14-2 per acre of cultivation, The cause of this enhancement i3 chiefly due to the fact that land has risen greatly in value during the last thirty years, and also that the expiring settlement was undoubtedly lenient, although exist¬ing circumstances then rendered this necessary. At the time of settlement the pargana contained 51 villages, divided into 345 mahals of which 167 were held in bhaiyachara tenure, 132 in single and joint zamindari and 45 by pattidars. The proprietors are chiefly Jats, Tagas and Pathans, with a considerable number of Banias, who hold portions of many villages, but few entire estates. The Jats are strongest in that portion of the pargana which lies west of the Hindan, but they are also found in large numbers in the centre and in the large village of Purbalian on the banks of the Kali Nadi. The Tagas belong to Shikarpur Kh&3, the two large villages of Umarpur and Shahpur in the centre, and four other villages. The Pathans are found chiefly along the Hindan and Rajputs in the eastern portion of the pargana. Most of the land is tilled by the owners, and these villages which are held by non-cultivating classes are; highly populated by Jat tenants. The latter are the best cultivators, but the Tagas and Rawahs are good and industrious husband men, while the Rajputs are of an inferior stamp.
The total population of the pargana at the last census numbered CS, 004 persons, of whom 36,395 were males and 31,609 females. Classified according to religions, there were 48,098 Hindu, 18,705 Musalmans and 1,209 others, chiefly Jains, the rest being Aryas and Sikhs. In 1872’the population numbered 52,329 souls, and since that date the rise has been marked and constant, for in 1881 the population had risen to no less than 58,554 persons. The only place of any importance in the pargana is Shahpur on the Muzaffarnagar road, where there is a large and flourishing market but there are soveral villages with large populations, such as Sisauli, Shoron, Purbalian, Bhaunra, Gula and Kakra, all of which are separately described. Small bazdrs are held at the villages of Umarpur and Ghafurpur. There are post-offices at Shahpur, Shikarpur and Sisauli, and schools at all the above- mentioned villages, and also at Palri, Garhi Nauabad, Pura, Muhammadpur and Kaserwa.
The pargana possesses neither railway nor metalled road, and the only unmetalled road within its limits, with the excep¬tion of the village part-tracks, is that from Muzaffarnagar to Budhana, which passes through the centre of the pargana. There are canal bungalows at Purbalian and Shahpur.
The present pargana of Shikarpur is composed of the two old parganas of Shikarpur and Shoron, which were united in 1816. In the days of Akbar the Shikarpur pargana was known as Khudi, that being the old name of the town of Shikarpur and the supposed name of the Raja who founded it.
SHORON, Pargana SHIKARPUR, Tahsil BUDHANA.
A village in the eastern half of the pargana at a distance of about two miles south of Shahpur and the road from Budhana to Muzaffarnagar. It is a large and flourishing plane, but greatly split up into factions. The proprietors are vory numerous, consisting of Jats and Saiyids, some of whom are iii proper circumstances. The; village is assessed at Rs. 8,624, and in 1901 contained a population of 4,974 persons, of whom 1,525 were Musalmans and 1819 Jains. There is a primary school here, but nothing else of any interest in the, village, except the shrine of Qharib Shah on the south-eastern outskirts, at which an annual fair is held on the first day of Shawal, when some 700 persons assemble. Shoron formerly gave its name to a pargana, which was amalgamated with Shikarpur in 1816.
SIKRI, pargana BHUKARHERI, Tahsil JANSATH.
A large village in the north of the pargana on the road from Pur to Bhukarheri and Ilahabas, at a distance of three miles north of Bhukarheri, from this point a small road branches off in a north-easterly direction to Gordhanpur. The village stands on the high bank of the Soluni River amid a network of ravines. It belongs to a good family of Sheikhzadas, who have resided here fox a long time. Many of them have been and are in Government service, and one of them, Muhammad Ali, was the firmative Joint Magistrate in these provinces, being appointed to that post in 1857, when he was sent to Atrauli in. Aligarh, where he was killed by the rebels. Sikri is assessed to revenue of Rs, 2,649, and in 1901 contained a population of 3,026 persons of whom 1,587 were Musalmans. The chief cultivating classes are Sheikhzadas and Jhojhas. A bazar is held here regularly on Mondays and Thursdays. There is a post-office here and an aided school.
SISAULI, Pargana Saikarpur, Tahsil Budhana.
A very large village about three miles north of Shikarpur and eight miles north of Budhana, on the right bank of a tributary of the Hindan, It lies off the road, about four miles south of the metalled line from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli. The village has grown very largely of late years, and at the last census had a population of 5,680 persons, of whom 676 were Musalmans and ten Aryas. The bulk of the populations are Hindu Jats, to whom the village formerly belonged. They are now, however, in reduced circumstances owing to the large number of sharers. The possession of the village has now passed to a considerable extent) into the hands of a prosperous family of Banias at present beaded by Raja Ram. The total Revenue now stands at Rs. 8,400 There are ample means of irrigation, but the village lies rather low and is liable to flooding. To the north of the old site a new village has sprung up, being separated from the former by an open space through which the drainage channel runs. There is a post-office here and a Government primary school.
SUJRU, Pargana and Tahsil MUZAFFARNAGAR.
A large Musalman village lying two miles south of Muzaf¬farnagar, a short distance west; of the metalled road to Meerut, It is situated on the high ground above the khadir of the Kali Nadi, and the village lands extend as far west as the banks of the river. The village is held in imperfect pattidari tenure, and a large portion of it is revenue-free. The population in 1901 numbered 341 souls, of whom 2,077 were Musalmans. The bulk of these are Rangars, while Bargujar Rajputs constitute almost the whole of the remainder. There is a primary school here.
TEORA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath.
A large village in the south-west of the pargana, at a distance of seven miles north of Jansath and a mile south of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor vid Jauli. The village lands are watered from the Ganges Canal and cover a considerable area. The proprietors, who are Saiyids and mahajans, pay revenue of Rs. 3,083; the tenants are mostly Jhojhas. The population numbered 2,699 persons, of whom 1,586 were Musalmans.
THANA BHAWAN, Pargana THANA BHAWAN, Tahsil Kairana.
The capital of the pargana is a town standing on the right bank of The Kirsani river and on the road leading from Shamli to Saharanpur, at a distance of eleven miles from Shamli, 18 miles from Kairana and 18 miles from Muzaffarnagar, with which it is connected by a second unmetalled road leading to Charthawal. A poor road leads west from Thana Bhawan to Garhi and Jhinjhana, The town stands on a .raised site 'lying between the lowlands of the Kirsani Nadi ou otic 6t*3t tied the country irrigated by the Jalalabad distributary of the Jumna Canal on the west. The place is in a decaying state and many ruined houses.are.to be seen ia the neighbourhood. There are a fair number of brick-built houses in the town, which is well opened out by four roadways meeting at a central point and forming ah open chauk or market-place, where the grain-dealers reside. The town contains a .police-station, post-office, cattle- pound, and a Government primary school. There is a celebrated old temple here dedicated to Bhawani Debi, which stands to the west of the town. / It is still considered a place of considerable sanctity and is visited by pilgrims from all parts of the country. A fair is held here in Bhadon and is attended by about 2,000 persons. The Musalman buildings are of no particular interest, the chief being ,the mosque of, Maulvi Saiyid-ud-din, built in 1099 Hijri, the tomb of Maulri Sheikh Muhammad erected in 1109 Hijri, and the mosque of Pir Muhammad, built by the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1114 Hijri.
The population of Thana Bhawan in 1847 numbered 11,221 souls and in 1853 had risen to 11,474. Since that time the place has considerably decayed, the population dropping in 1865 to 8,481 and in 1874 to 7,486 persons. In the past thirty years the number of inhabitants has slowly increased, the total at the last census being 8,861, of whom 4,532 were Hindus, 4,307 Musalmans and 22 Jains. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, and in 1901 out of a total of 1,977 houses 1,410 were assess¬ed to taxation, with an incidence of Re. 1-7-11 per assessed house and Be. 0-4-1 per head of population. The total income from all sources was Rs. 2,422, and of this Rs. 1,054 was devoted to the upkeep of the town police-force, numbering 15 men of all grades. Some Rs. 600 is spent yearly on conservancy and Rs. 385 on local improvements.
During the reign of Akbar the place was known as Thana Bhawan, but that n5me has long given place to the present one, which is derived from the temple referred to above. The town has for a long time been the home of the family of Qazis, whose property was largely diminished by confiscation after the Mutiny. In .1803 one of them, Najabat Ali Khan, was made a tabsildar by the British, but was soon dismissed on account) of hia behavi¬our and the outcry made by the whole pargana. His con;’tant practice was to purchase the villages sold by auction for arrears of revenue at his own price, and in this manner he became the most powerful landholder in the district.
Thana Bhawan was a centre of disaffection during the Mutiny when the Sheikhzadas headed by their Qazi, Mahbub'Ali Khan and his nephew, Inayat Ali, broke into open rebellion. Their most daring feat was the capture of the Shfimli tahsfl and the massacre in cold blood of 113 men, who defended it on the 14th September, 1857. Mr. Edwards, the Magistrate, being reinforced by some Sikh and Gurkha levies, shortly afterwards determined to attack Thana Bhawan, and thus describes his operations :— "On our approaching the place, large bodies of men were seen drawn out in the mango groves and behind the high-standing orops;the artillery opened fire and speedily dispersed them. The guns, however, could not do much, owiug to the view being obstructed by the gardens and trees up to the very walls. Some Gurkhas and Sikhs wore next sent out as skirmishers to clear the cultivation, which they effected. It was at this period that Lieutenant Johnstone, commanding tbe Sikhs, was wounded by a musket ball in the arm and obliged to go to tbe rear. After a time, finding that the skirmishers were unable to keep down the fire of the town, the rebela firing from behind walla, the skirmishers were directed to be withdrawn; the force then moved more to the left where the ground was clearer, and the horse artillery again opened fire, but finding after a few rounds that little or no effect was produced, the rebels keeping under cover, the guns were withdrawn. A storming party of the Sikhs and Gurkhas—the former under Captain Smith, the latter under Lieu¬tenant Cuyler—were directed to advance and storm the town. The party did as directed under smart fire of musketry, and, after clearing and taking possession of several detached buildings which were keenly contested, chargjd over the wall into the town and got possession of two guns, which they held for some time, but losing a number of men, and the supports failing to come to their aid, they wore at length obliged to return, leaving the captured gone behind as there were no means of removing - them. The artillery fired a few shots into the town which were not replied to, and we then retired. The musketry fired from the walls of the town and loopholed houses was very heavy, and our men, dropping all around, shot by enemie3 whom thay could not even see, became dispirited. We were engaged for nearly seven hours, and the men were Theroughly exhausted. The town, which was surrounded by a wall and ditch and has eight gates, is naturally a strong one, and the great number of its defenders, elated with their late success at Shamli, rendered all our efforts vain. Our loss was heavy: 17 killed and 25 wounded, including Captain Smith and Lieutenant Johnstone. The line of baggage, when we were retiring, was attacked by a large party of horse and foot near the village of Kheori; they were at once charged in gallant style by two detachments of the 1st Panjab Civalry, one led on by S. S. Melville, Esq., C.S., and the other by M. Low, Esq., C.S., who was severely wounded, receiving three sword-cuts, while his horse was also much out. The insurgents Sed in utter dis¬order and were cut up by the cavalry, to the number of about 100, the rest escaped through the high crops. We met with no further opposition on the road.” Recalled by orders, Mr. Edwards was obliged to fall back on the civil station, but shortly afterwards, being joined by a foroe from Meerut under Major Sawyer, he again proceeded against Thana Bhawan. The force on arriving at the place found the town deserted, and so it remained until the middle of October, when it was again visited by the flying column. “So great was the fear entertained by the people of the Sheikhzadas that no oue would give informa¬tion” against the leaders of the rebellion. Ample evidence was subsequently secured, and they met with their deserts. The wall of the town and the»eight gates were levelled to the ground, and from Ootober no further disturbance took place.
THANA BHAWAN Pargana, Tahsil Kairana.
This pargana forms the north-eastern portion of the tahsil, lying between the Baghra and Charthawal pargana of the Muzaffarnagar tahsil on the east and pargana Jhinjhana on the west. To the south lies Shamli, and to the north the Sahfiran- pur district. The pargana is intersected by the Kirsani River in the east and the Eastern Jamna Canal in the west. The tract along the Kirsani and to the east of that river basin its northern part a naturally inferior soil; there is much uncultivated waste and the cultivation is poor and careless. Means of irrigation are here very scanty owing to-the lightness of the soil. The southern portion of the eastern tract, however, is of great natural excellence and .contains as good land as any in the- district. Irrigation is supplied by the Kalarpur rajbaha of the Jumna Canal, and also by numerous wells. The western part of the pargana in the neighbourhood of the Jumna canal is a tract with a naturally rich soil well adapted for the cultivation of rice; the drainage, however, is much obstructed by the old and new channels of the Jumna canal and the network of distribu¬taries, the chief of which are the Kairana, Jalalabad and Yarpur rajbahas. On either side of the canal .there are large stretches of tisar and in the north-west scattered clump of dark jungle are to be found. The whole of the western half, with the exception of two villages in the extreme north¬western corner, re wives ample water from the canal while the central tract on either side of the Kirsani is chiefly dependent on wells.
The total area of the pargana is 57,619 acres or 90 square miles. Of this 37,827 acres or 65 per cent, were cultivated in 1901, a figure that shows a considerable increasing during the last ten years and surpasses that of i862jjy over 10,000 acres. Of the remaining area 9,770 acres are returned as barren, so that there is but little room for any great further extension of cultivation. The chief crops of the pargana are juar, rice, maize and sugarcane in the kharif, and wheat, gram and barley in the rabi, wheat by itself covering two-thirds of the whole area shown in the rabi harvest. The double-cropped area is large, amounting to 21 per cent.
The revenue of the pargana at Mr. Thornton's settlement of 184G was Rs. 56,244. At the following settlement of 1861 this was raised by Mr. Colvin to Rs. 57,081, which, though the net increase was small, actually involved a considerable enhancement owing to the decline in cultivation which had occurred during the years. At Mr, Miller’s settlement of 1881 the Tisang demand was raised to Rs. 67,805, giving an enhancement of 15 9 per cent, and falling with an incidence of Re; 1-12-7 per acre of cultivation at the present time. The pargana contains 56 villages, which in 1892 were divided into 78 mahfils, of which 42 where held in bhaiyachdra, 20 in single and joint zamindar and 16 in pattidari tenure. There are several revenue-freo estates owned by Sheikhs, Biluchisanl Mahrattas; the chief of these are in Jalalabad, Lohari and Jafarpur, and before the Mutiny there were very many more, no less than 7,563 acres having been confiscated for rebellion in this pargana. At the present time the principal proprietors are the Sheikhs of Thana Bhawan, Jdts in the west of the pargana and Rajputs in the east. The Jats and Raputs are the principal cultivators, while in addition to these there are considerable numbers of Sanis and Rawahs.
The population of the pargana at the census of 1872 numbered 4.1.928 souls, at the rate of 466 to the square mile. In 1881 the total had risen to 43,700 and in 1901 to 50,846 persons, of whom 26.723 were males and 24,114 females. Classified according to religions, there were 38,333 Hindus, 16,801 Musalmans and 212 others, .Jains, Aryas and Christians. There are two considerable towns in the pargana, Thana Bhawan and Jalalabad, both of which are decayed places with unimportant markets. The only other villages of any size or importance are Lohari and Garhi Abdulla Khan. Markets are held at both of these places and also at Qutbgarh. There are post-offices at Thana Bhawan, Jalalabad and Lohari, a middle vernacular school at Jalalabad and five Gov¬ernment primary schools. There is a canal bungalow at Yarpur.
The history of Thana Bhawan has been given in the article on that town. The pargana is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari under the name of Thana Bhavan, and remained in the same state up till 1840, when the boundaries were re-constituted, 28 villages being transferred to other parganas and the remaining 44 villages being formed into a new pargana, to which ten villages were added from the Saharanpur district.
TISAN, Pargana Jauli-Jansath, Tahsil Jansath.
A large village in the south-east of the pargana about a mile south of the road from Khatauli to Muzaffarnagar, at a distance of 17 miles from Muzaffarnagar and four miles from Jansath. The site is somewhat raised, but on the northern edge there is a large jhil which carries off the drainage of the surrounding country, and from it two drainage cut3 lead north towards Jansath. There is a village school here and a small bazar, in which markets are held weekly, on Mondays. 'The village consists of four mahals held in zamlndari tenure by Saiyids, and pays revenue of Rs. 5,710. It was founded by Saiyid Hizi.br Khan of the Kundliwal branch of the Barha Saiyids who died in 1637 A.D. His son was Zabardast Khan and his brother was Saiyid Alam, who perished with prince Shuja in Arakan. One of his descendants, Imdad Husain of Tisang, obtained the village of Jauli as a grant for services rendered during the mutiny. The population, which in 1865 numbered 1,800 souls, had risen in 1901 to 2,790 persons, of-whom 755 were Musalmans and 54 Jains. A fair, attended by about a thousand persons and known by the generic name of Chhariyan-ka-mela, is held at Tisang on the ninth day of Sawan, and a similar gathering occurs during the Moharmm.
TISSA, Pargana Bhukarheri, Tahsil Jansath.
A large village on the western borders of the pargana, a mile north of the road from Muzaffarnagar to Bijnor vid Jauli, three miles east of Jauli and eight miles north of Jansath, It contained in 1901 a population of 3,384 persons, of whom 1,492 are Musalmans and 120 Jains. It belongs to Saiyida and Mahajans, while the most numerous inhabitants ate Jats, Saiyids and Tagas. The place possesses a post-office, a village school and a bazar, in which a considerable trade in grain and sugar is berried on with Muzaffar­nagar. It is assessed to a revenua of Rs. 3,752. A considerable assemblage, known as the Ghat mela, occurs at Tissa on the 13th day of the light-half of Chait and is attended by some 2,000 vil­lagers of the neighbourhood. Musalman gatherings of a similar character are held at the Chehlam, on the 22nd of the Muham­madan month of Safar, and at the Moharram, the latter being the more popular, to judge from the numbers.
TITARWARA, Pargana and Tahsil Kairana.Tughlaqpur.
Distance of about three miles south of Kairana and 34 miles from Muzaffarnagar, It lies off the road on the uplands above the Jumna khadir, and is only connected by rough cart-tracks with Kairana and the neighbouring villages. The place was formerly of some importance as giving its name to a pargana, which was absorbed in Kairana in 1840. There is a village school here and a small bazar, in which markets are held weekly. About a mile east of the village flows the Khandrauli distributary of the Eastern Jumna Canal. The population in 1901 numbered 317 persons, of whom 1,436 were Hindus 1,358 Musalmans and 379 others, chiefly Jains, the remainder being Sikhs. The bulk of the population is Gujars, who hold the village in a single mahal assessed to revenue of Rs. 5,200.
TITAVI, Pargana Baghra, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A small village on the left bank of the Hindan river, lying- half a mile to the south of the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar to Shamli, at a distance of ten miles from the district headquar­ters. It is only noticeable as possessing a police-station, which was formerly located at Baghra. The Thana stands on the road­side, near the bridge over the Hindan. The population of Titavi in 1901 numbered 1,532 souls, of’whom 237 was Musalmans. Jats are the prevailing Hindu caste, and hold the village as a single bhaiyachara mahal assessed to revenue of Rs. 2,800.
TUGHLAQPUR, Pargana Purchhapar, Tahsil Muzaffarnagar.
A considerable village in the east of the pargana situated at a short distance from the edge of the Ganges khadir, between the main Ganges Canal and the left main distributary. Through the- village runs the road from Pur to Bhukarheri and Bijnor, which crosses the canal by a bridge at a short distance west of the village. From Tughlaqpur a very inferior road runs north-east to Gor- dhanpur across the khadir crossing the Soldni at Gatri ghat. Part of the village lands lie in the khadir, but there is very little cul­tivation there. The total area is l, 980 acres, assessed to revenue of Rs. 2,025. The proprietary body is mixed and consists of Jats, 1,446, of whom 223 were Musalmans. There is an aided school here. The place is now of little importance except as a road junction. In former days, however, it gave its name to a pargana which was latterly known as Nurnagar, from the small village of that name which was called after Nur Jahan, and was united with Purchhapar in 1816. The place is of some antiquity, as its name implies, for it was probably founded by, or derived its name from, the Emperor Muhammad Tughlaq. It is mentioned by Timur in his memoirs as a village on the banks of the Ganges, where be encamped during the expedition into the Duab. After leaving Meerut he marched to Firozpur, which is probably the village of that name in pargana Hastiuapur, and thence to Tughlaqpur, a distance of fifteen Kos.
UN, Pargana Jhinjhana, Tahsil Kairana.
A very large village about five miles north of Jhinjhana with which it is connected by a rough unmetalled road. The Katha nadi flows about two miles to the west. It is said to have been settled a long time ago by Jilts from Jhinjhana, and is still held principally by their descendants. It is divided into 26 bhaiyachara mahals, paying revenue of Rs. 6,915. The population in 1901 numbered 4,502 persons, of whom 440 were Musalmans and 150 Aryas. There is a primary school here, but nothing else of any importance.

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